- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes colored or patterned differently
- female more colorful
- Average length
- 7 mm
- 0.28 in
- Development - Life Cycle
The mating behavior of (Hoekenga, 2011)differs from most jellyfish. In what is termed 'the wedding dance', the male moves the female through the water by her tentacle. He positions her so their manubria (orifices) are close together and passes her a sac full of brightly colored red sperm. She then eats this sac and the eggs are fertilized. Males can pass a sperm sac to many different females, and females can accept many different sperm sacs from many males. Males may be able to choose their females based on their bright orange spots.
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
- Breeding season
- The breeding season for is spring and summer
- Average number of offspring
- Average gestation period
- 55 hours
- Average time to independence
- 4 days
- Parental Investment
- no parental involvement
- female parental care
The life cycle of this organism includes four days for embryonic development into a planula, four days of swimming around, and eight days for the planula to settle on a substrate to metamorphose. The actual metamorphosis process to become a polyp is 24 hours. The sessile polyp lives approximately 2-6 weeks after it settles on the substrate before they die. This makes a total of 4-8 weeks. Some organisms are able to survive the polyp stage, and after another three days become an elongated "creeper" stage which eventually metamorphs into a juvenile medusae stage. In lab experiments, the transitions from polyp to creeper and then to medusa was not observed, however it has been reported that the medusae die shortly after sexual reproduction. (Hartwick, 1991)
- Range lifespan
- 28 to 56 days
- Range lifespan
A medusa of (Hartwick, 1991)spends most of its days attached by its bell to the undersides of rocks. They have the ability to compact their bodies by folding their four tentacles inside their bells or by flattening. They swim to a surface, make contact with it using their adhesive pads, and then quickly stick to the surface. While stuck to the surface they are motionless and their tentacles are relaxed. They can remain like this for varied amounts of time. They detach either spontaneously or by some sort of stimulus and continue to swim. The reason for attaching to substrates and remaining immobile is to save energy and to avoid predators. They are usually attached to a substrate during the day and then free swimming during the night.
- Key Behaviors
Communication and Perception
Vision plays a role on what surfaces (Hartwick, 1991)attaches. The developed rhopalial eyes have not been studied completely, but have a role in their reproductive behavior. These also have sexually dimorphic pigmentation patterns and distinctive banding patterns on their tentacles that may have a role in mate recognition.
Because (Hartwick, 1991)is free swimming during the night, it feeds mainly on night swarming benthic organisms. This includes heteronereids, cumaceans, gammarid amphiods, and isopods. This jellyfish stings its prey to capture it.
- Primary Diet
- eats non-insect arthropods
- Animal Foods
- aquatic or marine worms
- aquatic crustaceans
- other marine invertebrates
To avoid predators (Hartwick, 1991)attaches to surfaces.
- Anti-predator Adaptations
There are no published studies on the role of (Hartwick, 1991)on the ecosystem, but it feeds on benthic organisms and therefore is part of the food web for benthic populations.
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
- research and education
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Like many species of Cubozoa, (Hartwick, 1991)have cnidocytes that sting organisms. The cnidocytes are used to catch prey and can be harmful to humans, if they are stung. However, the stings are not known to be fatal for humans.
- Negative Impacts
- bites or stings
requires no special conservation efforts.
Roshni Patel (author), Rutgers University, Kimberly Rutledge (author), Rutgers University, David V. Howe (editor), Rutgers University, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects.
Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. see also oceanic vent.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
- oceanic islands
islands that are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass, most typically these are volcanic islands.
reproduction in which eggs develop within the maternal body without additional nourishment from the parent and hatch within the parent or immediately after laying.
An aquatic biome consisting of the open ocean, far from land, does not include sea bottom (benthic zone).
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.
- radial symmetry
a form of body symmetry in which the parts of an animal are arranged concentrically around a central oral/aboral axis and more than one imaginary plane through this axis results in halves that are mirror-images of each other. Examples are cnidarians (Phylum Cnidaria, jellyfish, anemones, and corals).
- saltwater or marine
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
- year-round breeding
breeding takes place throughout the year
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
Hartwick, R. 1991. Observations on the anatomy, behaviour, reproduction and life cycle of the cubozoan Carybdea sivickisi. Hydrobiologia, 216-217: 171-179.
Hoekenga, C. 2011. "Jellyfish romance-(Carybdea sivickisi)" (On-line). Smithsonian Natural Museum of Natural History. Accessed February 23, 2013 at http://invertebrates.si.edu/jellyfish/index.html.
Hoverd, W. 1985. Occurance of the order Cubomedusae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in New Zealand: collection and laboratory observations of Carybdea sivickisi. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 12: 107-110. Accessed February 23, 2013 at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/03014223.1985.10428267.
Lewis, C., S. Kubota, A. Migotto, A. Collins. 2008. Sexually dimorphic culjomedusa Carybdea sivickisi. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab, 40: 1-8. Accessed February 23, 2013 at http://si-pddr.si.edu/jspui/bitstream/10088/6250/1/Lewis_etal_2008.pdf.
Lewis, C., T. Long. 2005. Courtship and reproduction in Carybdea sivickisi (Cnidaria: Cubozoa). Marine Biology, 147: 477–483. Accessed February 23, 2013 at http://www.wlu.ca/documents/44351/Lewis_Long_2005.pdf.
Shapiro, L. 2011. "Carybdea sivickisi" (On-line). EOL species rapid response. Accessed February 23, 2013 at http://eolspecies.lifedesks.org/pages/15888.