Nymphs are aquatic and live in weed beds of shallow ponds and shoals. Adults are terrestrial and are usually found in riparian habitats near the bodies of water from which they emerged. (Neal and Whitcomb, 1972; Needham, et al., 2000; Paulson, 2011)tends to prefer heavily vegetated areas with tall grass. Adults are often found perching on vertical stalks, females are often found far from water, while males are usually found closer. They may also be found in agricultural fields and prairie or meadow ecosystems, with a water source nearby.
- Terrestrial Biomes
- savanna or grassland
- Aquatic Biomes
- lakes and ponds
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes colored or patterned differently
- Range length
- 27 to 31 mm
- 1.06 to 1.22 in
- Range wingspan
- 46 to 52 mm
- 1.81 to 2.05 in
- Development - Life Cycle
While there is little information specific to the mating habits of odonates, the genital opening and seminal vesicle are separated in the abdomen. Sperm has to be transferred from the genital opening under the ninth abdominal segment to the seminal vesicle under the second abdominal segment. This sperm transfer occurs before mating. Males fly around in search of mates and will grab the female with their legs once they find them. The male clasps the female with his terminal appendages at the back of her head to link in tandem. Once linked, the female swings her abdomen forward, to connect the tip of her abdomen with the seminal vesicle to initiate sperm transfer from the male. Oftentimes, the male will have to flush out sperm in the female from another male. The female also holds on to the abdomen of the male with her legs. This is called the "wheel position". Copulation lasts a very short time and takes place in flight or while perched on vegetation. Dragonflies are polygynandrous, with males and females mating many times with different mates during their lives. Older dragonflies often have marks from previous matings such as scratches on females' eyes from being grasped in tandem. (Abbott, 2005; Paulson, 2011), its mating habits are likely similar to most dragonfly species. In male
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
After mating, pairs of Amanda's pennants stay together and usually oviposit in tandem, although females may separate and oviposit on their own. They fly in search of a suitable site, with eggs typically laid along the shoreline. Since dragonflies can mate many times in their lives, females can lay many different batches from different matings. (Paulson, 2011)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Amanda's pennants can mate many times throughout their life.
- Breeding season
- This species mates during the summer.
Adults of (Paulson, 2011)provide provisioning in their eggs and lay the eggs in a suitable aquatic environment for the nymphs to live in upon hatching. Otherwise, they provide no more parental care.
- Parental Investment
- Average lifespan
- 1 months
- Average lifespan
There is currently no information available regarding the home range size of Amanda's pennants.
Communication and Perception
Dragonflies have very acute vision, with large eyes that have a wide sight range. They are good at detecting movement, which is useful when hunting during flight, but cannot see well below or above themselves. They can also see UV light. Vision is used to detect mates, and a tactile connection between mates is vitally important during copulation, as the male grasps the female by the head with his terminal appendages throughout the act. The tactile connection is also maintained during oviposition for (Paulson, 2011).
- Perception Channels
Amanda's pennants are predators, feeding on insects. Adults tend to perch on vegetation and wait for prey to fly past and then pursue it. Nymphs quickly extend their enlarged labium to grab prey such as aquatic insects, other Odonata nymphs, and other aquatic organisms. (Paulson, 2011)
- Animal Foods
Predators of adult Amanda's pennants include birds, spiders, robber flies, ants, and other Odonata. Dragonflies are particularly vulnerable in their teneral stage, when they are weak and often remain on land for a period of time before taking their first flight. Frogs and freshwater fish can prey on adults that are ovipositing in the water. Predators of nymphs include water beetles, fish, aquatic birds, and other Odonata nymphs. The green-brown coloration on nymphs acts as camouflage, allowing them to blend in with their surrounding vegetation. (Needham, et al., 2000; Needham, et al., 2000; Paulson, 2011)
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There are no known positive effects ofon humans.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known adverse effects ofon humans.
has no special conservation status.
Angela Miner (author), Animal Diversity Web Staff, Leila Siciliano Martina (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
Abbott, J. 2005. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Texas and the South-Central United States. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Beaton, G. 2007. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Georgia and the Southeast. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.
Neal, T., W. Whitcomb. 1972. Odonata in the Florida Soybean Agroecosystem. The Florida Entomologist, 55/2: 107-114.
Needham, J., M. Westfall, Jr., M. May. 2000. Dragonflies of North America. Gainesville, Florida: Scientific Publishers, Inc.
Paulson, D. 2011. Dragonflies and Damselflies of the East. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.