Coccinella johnsi. They are red, oval-shaped and range from 4.7 to 7.0 mm. They range in size (area of their elytra) from 24.36 to 37.66 sq. mm. has a broad head with a pale band between its eyes that is posteriorly and anteriorly black. The anterior margin of the pronotum is pale as well. There is a large ventral pale spot that is trapezoidal, extending posteriorly as far as the dorsal spot. The elytra have black spots that get smaller in size and in number until the scutellar spot.typically has nine spots, which gives it its name (novem- nine in Latin), although there are spotless forms which may be confused with
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range length
- 4.7 to 7.0 mm
- 0.19 to 0.28 in
Larvae of (Losey, et al., 2012)hatch from eggs after approximately four days. The larvae undergo four instars before pupating, metamorphosing, and reaching adulthood. It takes an average of four to five days for to reach its third-instar. After approximately seven more days, the larvae spend one day in a pre-pupal stage where they stop eating and appear very sluggish. The larvae then pupate. After four days, adults emerge. After one day, the elytra on the adult hardens.
There is not available literature that describes the mating systems of Coccinella septempunctata. Males of Coccinella septempunctata exhibit a five step courtship display. They first approach a female, watch, then examine, mount and attempt copulation. Females who are not sexually mature, have recently mated, or are about to oviposit, exhibit a display of rejection towards the male. Males recognize female mates based on chemical and visual cues, such as size and female body shape. It is possible that the chemical cues play a larger role in attracting a male than the visual cues. Males may mate multiple times in one day. It is possible, though not certain, that the mating habits of are similar to those of C. septempunctata. (Omkar and Srivastava, 2002; Srivastava and Omkar, 2004), but there is research that describes the mating systems of the very similar
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
There is little available scientific literature that describes the general mating behavior of (Losey, et al., 2012). It is known that reaches sexual maturity 2 to 4 days after it becomes an adult. Adults breed continuously during a several week period in the summer that occurs before overwintering.
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Adults breed continuously, living for several weeks.
- Breeding season
- Adults breed for several weeks in the summer.
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 22 to 25 days
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 22 to 25 days
- Parental Investment
There is little information available on this topic for (Losey, et al., 2012), though it is known that it takes approximately 20 days for to develop from an egg to an adult. Adults then live for several weeks during the summer, with the final generation overwintering.
Communication and Perception
There is no available information that describes the communication and perception of Coccinellidae that rely on mainly visual and chemical inputs to locate prey and mates. (Omkar and Srivastava, 2002; Srivastava and Omkar, 2004), but it is likely similar to other
pea aphids, green peach aphids, and cheery-oat aphids. They will also eat spider mites, alfalfa weevils, the nymphs of leafhoppers, and lepidopteran eggs. (Hesler, et al., 2012; Losey, et al., 2012; Wheeler and Hoebeke, 1995)is an insectivore coccinellid and thrives primarily on a diet of aphids. They prey on a large variety of aphids, including
- Animal Foods
Like most Coccinellidae, is subject to interspecies predation and cannibalism. Coccinella transversoguttata is known to prey on all life stages of . In lab reared populations, it has been observed that active stages of will cannibalize eggs and pupae, while large larvae will prey on smaller larvae. As a coccinellid, it is likely that can reflex bleed when threatened by a predator, excreting a toxin from its joints. The red color of these beetles functions as aposematic warning coloration. (Gordon, 1985; Hesler, et al., 2012; Losey, et al., 2012)
- Anti-predator Adaptations
- Known Predators
alfalfa weevils, leafhopper nymphs, and lepidopteran eggs. Aphids are the primary prey of both larvae and adults of . Competition over aphid prey and other food is suspected to have led to the diminished population of in North America today. Evidence suggests that is competing with the introduced species, Coccinella septempunctata, for aphids. The body size of is particularly susceptible to prey availability, and the mean body size has decreased significantly in the past few years, indicating that is being out-competed for prey. Other factors that have been proposed as reasons for the decline of are climate change as well as a change in agricultural land use. Other invasive species, such as Harmonia axyridis have not been attributed with the decline of this species. is also considered to be a natural enemy of Ostrina nubilalis, the European corn borer. The braconid wasp Perilitus coccinellae is known to be a parasite of adults. (Losey, et al., 2012; Wheeler and Hoebeke, 1995)acts as a predator to many species of aphids, as well as spider mites,
alfalfa weevils, leafhopper nymphs, and butterfly and moths eggs. The population of has decreased recently in North America. This is thought to be caused by competition for food (aphids) between and other species, such as Coccinella septempunctata. Coccinella septempunctata is an invasive species, and is likely pushing out of its habitat. The body size of is effected by the amount of food available. In the past few years, the average body size of has decreased, which shows that individuals of are not getting enough food. The population of may also have decreased because of climate change, as well as changes in farm land (their food, aphids, are usually very common on crops on farmland). is considered to be a natural enemy of Ostrina nubilalis, the European corn borer. The wasp Perilitus coccinellae is known to be a parasite of adults. (Losey, et al., 2012; Wheeler and Hoebeke, 1995)eats many species of aphids, as well as spider mites,
- Perilitus coccinellae
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
- controls pest population
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known adverse affects ofon humans.
This species currently has no conservation status, but due to the massive decline in population size across the United States, (Harmon, et al., 2007)is a likely candidate for future conservation efforts.
In 2000, Cornell University started The Lost Ladybug Project, which uses images of ladybugs taken by citizens to identify coccinellids from across the country. This project has been effective in providing information about the location of coccinellids, and has helped establish the limited presence of ("The Lost Ladybug Project", 2013; Losey, et al., 2012)in the western states.
Deeana Ijaz (author), University of Michigan Biological Station, Angela Miner (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff, Brian Scholtens (editor), University of Michigan Biological Station.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
having coloration that serves a protective function for the animal, usually used to refer to animals with colors that warn predators of their toxicity. For example: animals with bright red or yellow coloration are often toxic or distasteful.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
a period of time when growth or development is suspended in insects and other invertebrates, it can usually only be ended the appropriate environmental stimulus.
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an animal which has a substance capable of killing, injuring, or impairing other animals through its chemical action (for example, the skin of poison dart frogs).
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
2013. "The Lost Ladybug Project" (On-line). Accessed March 27, 2013 at http://www.lostladybug.org/.
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Hesler, L., M. Catangui, J. Losey, J. Helbig, A. Mesman. 2009. Recent Records of Adalia bipunctata (L.), Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Herbst (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from South Dakota and Nebraska. The Coleopterists Bulletin, 64/4: 475-484.
Hesler, L., G. McNickle, M. Catangui, J. Losey, E. Beckendorf, L. Stellwag, D. Brandt, P. Bartlett. 2012. Method for Continuously Rearing Coccinella Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The Open Entomology Journal, 6: 42-48.
Hudon, M. 1959. First Record of Perilitus coccinellae (Schrank) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a Parasite of Hbst. and Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timb. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 91/1: 63-64.
Losey, J., J. Perlman, E. Hoebeke. 2007. Citizen scientist rediscovers rare nine-spotted lady beetle, Journal of Insect Conservation, 11/4: 415-417., in eastern North America.
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Srivastava, S., Omkar. 2004. Age-specific mating and reproductive senescence in the seven-spotted ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata. Journal of Applied Entomology, 128: 452-458.
Stehr, W. 1930. The Coccinellidae (ladybird beetles) of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 75: 1-54.