- Terrestrial Biomes
- savanna or grassland
is a medium-sized, round, slightly oval beetle, measuring 5 to 7.8 mm in length. It has a red or orange body and black markings. The markings on the elytra include a solid black band behind the pronotum with two elongated black markings nearer the end of the body on each side of the elytra. The pronotum is black with white markings on either side. The head is generally black with two white spots. Antennae are quite short and have a loose club of approximately 3 to 6 segments.
Eggs are small (approximately 1.0 mm) and generally yellow.
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range length
- 5 to 7.8 mm
- 0.20 to 0.31 in
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
Coccinellidae species. Eggs are laid in egg masses, which normally contain approximately 20 to 30 eggs. will usually lay multiple egg masses per season, sometimes laying upwards of 1000 eggs. It will often lay the egg masses near aphid populations so that the larvae can feed once they emerge. This species breeds consistently throughout the spring and summer. There are typically two generations of each year. (Evans, 2003; Gordon and Vandenberg, 1995; Kajita, 2008; Kajita, et al., 2009; Michaud, 2000; Obrycki and Tauber, 1981; Yasuda, et al., 2004)has no apparent reproductive behaviors that differ from other general
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- can breed continuously throughout the spring and summer months.
- Breeding season
- After temperatures exceed 12°C, this species can mate indeterminately until temperatures cool again in autumn.
- Range eggs per season
- 20 to 1000+
Most coccinellids do not engage in parental care beyond the female providing nutrients within the eggs, which is likely true with this species. Additionally, (Banks, 1957; Gordon, 1985; Hagan, 1962; Hodek, 1996)will lay egg masses near aphid populations, providing the larvae with a food source once they hatch.
- Parental Investment
No studies have been conducted regarding the lifespans of Coccinelidae species, this species is a bivoltine organism, with two generations per year that may overlap slightly. In most cases, individuals will live only one season. The last generation will diapause over the winter. (Gordon, 1985)specifically, but like most
- Typical lifespan
- 30 to 90 days
- Typical lifespan
Coccinellidae, studies have indicated that light is a major cue for diapause for . Studies on other Coccinellidae species show that the main cue for diapause occurs once daylight hours drop below 10 to 13 hours per day, and this is likely true for as well. (Biddinger, et al., 2009; Dixon, 2005; Gordon, 1985; Sloggett and Majerus, 2000; Storch, 1976)is a solitary species, only congregating with other individuals during mating. It is a mobile predator that is mainly active during the day. This species often flies from plant to plant to find prey species. It will diapause in the winter. Like other
Communication and Perception
- Other Communication Modes
- Animal Foods
Invasive Coccinellidae species, such as Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata, are often predators of , especially during immature stages. To defend itself, can reflex bleed when agitated, releasing toxic chemicals from its tarsi that deter predation. Their red or orange coloration functions as an aposematic mechanism against predation. (Gordon, 1985; Riddick, et al., 2009; Yasuda, et al., 2004; de Jong, et al., 1991)
- Anti-predator Adaptations
aphids that consume various plant species. It has the potential to control the size of an aphid population. This role is becoming diminished as invasive species, such as Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata out-compete this species for resources. Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata have also been known to prey on all life stages of . also plays host to several different parasites. Ectoparasitic fungi and ectoparasitic mites have been found on Coccinellids throughout the world. Mites of the genus Coccipolipus have also been found on the species. Male-killing bacterial agents including Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, Wolbachia, Flavobacteria, and γ-proteobacterium have been found on Coccinellidae species. The braconid wasp Dinocampus coccinellae is a major parasitoid on . The Tachinidae fly Strongygaster triangulifer may also be a parasitoid of this species. (Gordon, 1985; Hagan, 1962; Riddick, et al., 2009; Sloggett and Majerus, 2000)is historically a notable predator in its native range, as it mainly feeds on
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
- controls pest population
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known adverse affects ofon humans.
Dylan Graves (author), University of Michigan Biological Station, Angela Miner (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff, Brian Scholtens (editor), University of Michigan Biological Station.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
having coloration that serves a protective function for the animal, usually used to refer to animals with colors that warn predators of their toxicity. For example: animals with bright red or yellow coloration are often toxic or distasteful.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
a period of time when growth or development is suspended in insects and other invertebrates, it can usually only be ended the appropriate environmental stimulus.
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
an animal which has a substance capable of killing, injuring, or impairing other animals through its chemical action (for example, the skin of poison dart frogs).
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
Adriano, G., N. Vandenberg, J. McHugh, J. Forrester, S. Slipinski, K. Miller, L. Shapiro, M. Whiting. 2009. The evolution of food preferences in Coccinellidae. Biological Control, 51(2): 215-231.
Alyokhin, A., K. Landry, C. Finlayson. 2008. Abundance of native and non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in different habitats in Maine. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 101(6): 1078-1087.
Alyokhin, A., G. Sewell. 2004. Changes in a lady beetle community following the establishment of three alien species. Biological Invasion, 6: 463-471.
Arnett, R. 1993. American insects: a handbook of the insects of America north of Mexico. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Banks, C. 1957. The behaviour of individual coccinellid larvae on plants. The British Journal of Animal Behaviour, 5(1): 12-24.
Biddinger, D., D. Weber, L. Hull. 2009. Coccinellidae as predators of mites: Stethorini in biological control. Biological Control, 51: 268-283.
Borror, D., R. White. 1970. Peterson field guides: A field guide to the insects of America north of Mexico. Boston, MA, USA.: Houghton Mifflin.
Day, W., K. Tatman. 2006. Changes in abundance of native and adventive Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in alfalfa fields, in northern New Jersey (1993-2004) and Delaware (1999-2004), USA. Entomological News, 117(5): 491-502.
Dixon, A. 2005. Insect predatory-prey dynamics: ladybird beetles and biological control. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Elliott, N., R. Kieckhefer, W. Kauffman. 1996. Effects of an invading coccinellid on native coccinellids in an agricultural landscape. Oecologia, 105(4): 537-544.
Fauske, G., P. Tinerella, D. Rider. 2003. A list of the ladybeetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of North Dakota with new records from North Dakota and Minnesota. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 76: 38-46.
Gordon, R. 1985. The Coccinellidae of America north of Mexico. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 93: 1-912.
Hagan, K. 1962. Biology and ecology of predaceous Coccinellidae. Annual Review of Entomology, 7: 289-326.
Hesler, L., M. Catangui, J. Losey, J. Helbig, A. Mesman. 2009. Recent records of Adalia bipunctata (L.), richardsoni Brown, and Coccinella novemnotata Herbst (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from South Dakota and Nebraska. Coleopterists Bulletin, 63(4): 475-484.
Hodek, I. 1996. Ecology of Coccinellidae. New York, NY: Dordecht, Kluwever Academic.
Kajita, Y. 2008. Reproductive tactics of aphidophagous lady beetles: Comparison of a native species and an invasive species that is displacing it. Utah State University - All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, 137: 1-157.
Kajita, Y., E. Evans. 2010. Relationships of body size, fecundity, and invasion success among predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) inhabiting alfalfa fields. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 103(5): 750-756.
Kajita, Y., E. Evans, H. Yasuda. 2009. Reproductive responses of invasive and native predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to varying prey availability. Environmental Entomology, 38(4): 1283-1292.
Kindlmann, P., O. Ameixa, A. Dixon. 2011. Ecological effects of invasive alien species on native communities, with particular emphasis on the interactions between aphids and ladybirds. Biocontrol, 56(4): 469-476.
Lundgren, J., M. Seagraves. 2011. Physiological benefits of nectar feeding by a predatory beetle. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 104(3): 661-669.
Michaud, J. 2000. Development and reproduction of ladybeetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the citrus aphids Aphis spiraecola Patch and Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Biological Control, 18(3): 287-297.
Obrycki, J., J. Harwood, T. Kring, R. O'Neill. 2009. Aphidophagy by Coccinellidae: Application of biological control in agroecosystems. Biological Control, 51(2): 244-254.
Obrycki, J., T. Kring. 1998. Predaceous Coccinellidae in biological control. Annual Review of Entomology, 43: 295-301.
Obrycki, J., M. Tauber. 1981. Phenology of 3 Coccinellid species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Adalia bipunctata, , Coccinella septempuncatata – thermal requirements for development. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 74(1): 31-36.
Riddick, E., T. Cottrell, K. Kidd. 2009. Natural enemies of the Coccinellidae: parasites, pathogens, and parasitoids. Biological Control, 51(2): 306-312.
Saito, T., S. Bjørnson. 2008. Effects of a microsporidium from the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin–Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), on three non-target coccinellids. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 99(3): 294-301.
Sasaji, H. 1971. Coccinellidae. Tokyo: Academic Press of Japan.
Turnock, W., I. Wise, F. Matheson. 2003. Abundance of some native coccinellines (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) before and after the appearance of Coccinella septempunctata. Canadian Entomologist, 135(3): 391-404.
Yasuda, H., E. Evan, Y. Kajita, K. Urakawa, T. Takizawa. 2004. Asymmetric larval interactions between introduced and indigenous ladybirds in North America. Oecologia, 141(4): 722-731.
de Jong, P., G. Holloway, P. Brakefield, H. de Vos. 1991. Chemical defence in ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae). II. Amount of reflex fluid, the alkaloid adaline and individual variation in defence in 2-spot ladybirds (Adalia bipunctata). Chemoecology, 2: 15-19.