- Other Habitat Features
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes shaped differently
- Average length
- 3 mm
- 0.12 in
In the wild, adult female (Boling and Pitre, 1970)will usually deposit one egg in each noctuid moth larval host. Within two days the egg hatches into the first larval instar. The larvae then molt twice inside the host before emerging, killing the host, and immediately spinning a cocoon of roughly 4 mm in length on whichever surface it lands. At roughly 13 days from the implantation of the egg, the adult emerges from the cocoon fully developed. Although reproductively active immediately, the average adult has roughly 1 week to reproduce before death.
- Development - Life Cycle
In order to reproduce, males locate the females by following pheromone trails. Once a female is located, a male fans its wings to signal to the female that he is ready to mate. If the female does not jump away or click it's wings, then the male mounts the female. Most likely due to the disparity in the male/female ratio of (Boling and Pitre, 1970), the male will attempt to mate multiple times, while the female mates once and rejects further attempts to mate. Currently, there are no known traits that influence mate preference.
- Mating System
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- induced ovulation
- Breeding interval
- Individual breed once yearly within their short lifespans.
- Breeding season
- The breeding season for is generally during spring and summer months, when temperatures are above 10 C.
- Average eggs per season
- 150 (when lab cultured)
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 13 days
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 12 days
As with most other parasitoid wasps, (Riddick, 2008)displays no parental investment.
- Parental Investment
- no parental involvement
- Typical lifespan
- 22 to 30 days
- Typical lifespan
Specific home range sizes forare currently unknown.
Communication and Perception
Adult black cutworms, celery loopers, common loopers, bean leaf-skeletonizers, corn earworms, tobacco budworms, spotted beet webworms, Hawaiian beet webworms, Leucania latiuscula, variegated cutworms, Plathypena scabra, armyworms, soybean loopers, Scotorythra caryopsis, cabbage loopers and several species of Spodoptera, including southern armyworms, beet armyworms, fall armyworms, Spodoptera ornithogalli, and Spodoptera praefica. (Boling and Pitre, 1970; Johanowicz and Mitchell, 2000)require a sugar source and are known to feed from the nectar of flowers as well as from the honeydew excretions of aphids. Female lay eggs within an insect host, which will serve as nourishment for the developing larvae. As a generalist parasitoid, larvae feed on the internal structures from a variety of insect larvae. Some of the species that are host to larvae include:
- Animal Foods
- body fluids
- Plant Foods
There are no known specific predators of (Raw, 1997). However, numerous birds as well as amphibians and other insects are known to opportunistically feed upon wasps.
The most notable role of Noctuidae family. Additionally, are known to directly affect the populations of other parasitic wasps such as Microplitis croceipes and Cardiochiles nigriceps by interspecific competition between the larval phases of the parasites. When multiple wasp eggs are present within the same host, the egg that is laid first is usually the only one to successfully hatch and mature into an adult. Commonly parasitized species include: black cutworms (Agrotis ipsilon), celery loopers (Anagrapha falcifera), common loopers (Autographa precationis), bean leaf-skeletonizers (Autoplusia egena), corn earworms (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco budworms (Heliothis virescens), spotted beet webworms (Hymenia perspectalis), Hawaiian beet webworms (Hymenia recurvalis), Leucania latiuscula, variegated cutworms (Peridroma saucia), Plathypena scabra, armyworms (Pseudaletia unipuncta), soybean loopers (Pseudoplusia includens), Scotorythra caryopsis, southern armyworms (Spodoptera eridania), beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua), fall armyworms (Spodoptera frugiperda), Spodoptera ornithogalli, Spodoptera praefica, and cabbage loopers (Trichoplusia ni). (Boling and Pitre, 1970; De Moraes and Mescher, 2005; Johanowicz and Mitchell, 2000)is the population control it provides for the numerous species it parasitizes. These parasitic wasps mostly parasitize moths of the
- Ecosystem Impact
- moths (Noctuidae)
- black cutworms (Agrotis ipsilon)
- celery loopers (Anagrapha falcifera)
- common loopers (Autographa precationis)
- bean leaf-skeletonizers (Autoplusia egena)
- corn earworms (Helicoverpa zea)
- tobacco budworms (Heliothis virescens)
- spotted beet webworms (Hymenia perspectalis)
- Hawaiian beet webworms (Hymenia recurvalis)
- Leucania latiuscula
- variegated cutworms (Peridroma saucia)
- Plathypena scabra
- armyworms (Pseudaletia unipuncta)
- soybean loopers (Pseudoplusia includens)
- Scotorythra caryopsis
- southern armyworms (Spodoptera eridania)
- beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua)
- fall armyworms (Spodoptera frugiperda)
- Spodoptera praefica
- Spodoptera ornithogalli
- cabbage loopers (Trichoplusia ni)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Because of the nature of Noctuidae. Specifically, has been shown to be most effective at controlling herbivore populations feeding on maize due to an attraction to a certain blend of volatile chemicals produced from larvae feeding on the corn. (D'Alessandro, et al., 2009; Lai, 1988)as a noctuid larval parasitoid, it has proven to be a great asset to thousands of farmers growing a wide variety of crops damaged by species of
- Positive Impacts
- controls pest population
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
To date, there are no known economic issues caused by the presence of these parasitoid wasps. (Lai, 1988)
Currently, they are no apparent risks to this species. It is also unlikely that the (D'Alessandro, et al., 2009)population will be at risk in the near future, due to interest in them as a biological control agent.
Cotesia marginiventris is also known by the name of Apanteles marginiventris (Tingle, et al., 2005)
Nicholas Stefanski (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Heidi Liere (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Marino (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Barry OConnor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Rachelle Sterling (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
- induced ovulation
ovulation is stimulated by the act of copulation (does not occur spontaneously)
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
- oceanic islands
islands that are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass, most typically these are volcanic islands.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
having more than one female as a mate at one time
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
an animal which has an organ capable of injecting a poisonous substance into a wound (for example, scorpions, jellyfish, and rattlesnakes).
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
Ashley, T. 1986. Geographical Distributions and Parasitization Levels for Parasitoids of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Florida Entomologist, 86/3: 516-524.
Boling, J., H. Pitre. 1970. Life History of Apanteles marginiventris With Descriptions of Immature Stages. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 43: 465-470.
Butler, C., N. Beckage, J. Trumble. 2009. Effects of Terrestrial Pollutants on Insect Parasitoids. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 28/6: 1111-1119.
D'Alessandro, M., V. Brunner, G. von Merey, T. Turlings. 2009. Strong Attraction of the Parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris Towards Minor Volatile Compounds of Maize. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 35/9: 999-1008.
De Moraes, C., M. Mescher. 2005. Intrinsic Competition Between Larval Parasitoids with Different Degrees of Host Specificity. Ecological Entomology, 30/5: 564-570.
Jalali, S., S. Singh, C. Ballal, P. Kumar. 1990. Response of Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) to Low Temperature in Relation to its Biotic Potential. Entomon, 15: 217-220.
Johanowicz, D., E. Mitchell. 2000. Effects of Sweet Alyssum Flowers on the Longevity of the Parasitoid Wasps Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Florida Entomologist, 83/1: 41-47.
Joyce, A., J. Bernal, S. Vinson, R. Lomeli-Flores. 2009. Influence of Adult Size on Mate Choice in the Solitary and Gregarious Parasitoids, Cotesia marginiventris and Cotesia flavipes. Journal of Insect Behavior, 22/1: 12-28.
Lai, P. 1988. Biological Control: A Positive Point of View. Hawaiian Entomological Society, 28: 179-190.
Raw, A. 1997. Avian Predation on Individual Neotropical Social Wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) Outside Their Nests. Ornitologia Neotropical, 8: 89-92.
Riddick, E. 2006. Egg Load and Body Size of Lab-cultured Cotesia marginiventris. BioControl (Dordrecht), 51/5: 603-610.
Riddick, E. 2008. Sting Frequency and Progeny Production of Lab-cultured Cotesia marginiventris. BioControl (Dordrecht), 53/2: 295-302.
Sourakov, A., E. Mitchell. 2001. Effects of Cool Temperatures on Oviposition and Development of Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Florida Entomologist, 84/2: 308-309.
Tingle, F., E. Mitchell, R. Heath. 2005. Mating and Oviposition by Cotesia (=*Apanteles*) marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) In Presence of Synthetic Pheromone of Spodoptera fruiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 15/7: 2045-2050.
Turlings, T., J. Tumlinson, F. Eller, W. Lewis. 2004. Larval-damaged Plants: Source of Volitle Synomines That Guide the Parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris to the Microhabitat of its Hosts.. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 58/1: 75-82.