- Other Habitat Features
- Range elevation
- 50 to 600 m
- 164.04 to 1968.50 ft
Mexican agoutis are rabbit-sized rodents with blackish-brown, slightly grizzled pelage. They have rounded backs and long, thin legs adapted for running. The rump is black, the breast is whitish-brown, and parts of the throat and stomach are white. The shoulders and thighs have denser speckling than the sides. The tail is short, black, and hidden under posterior hair. Their body length ranges from 446 to 557 mm, their tail is between 20 to 30 mm, and most adults weigh between 2 and 5 kg. (Alvarez Del Toro, 1977; Arkive, 2011; Coates-Estrada and Estrada, 1986a; Hall, 1981; Reid, 2009; Saussure, 1860)
The head of Mexican agoutis is black on top and brown on its sides with some minor white speckling. Skin surrounding the eyes is pink and sparsely covered with downy gray or brown hair. The mustache is black and hair on the throat is completely white. Ears are pink at the base, naked and rounded at the tips with the posterior margins somewhat notched. Hairs on the body and neck are brownish-black with two white rings. The overlaying of these ringed hairs produces a mottled appearance. Long black hairs form a line from the middle of the head down along the back, which becomes wider towards its posterior end. Hair next to this line is also long and black but has one white ring. Chest hairs are light brown at the base and white at the tips. Abdominal hairs are brown with a white ring and hair posterior to the abdomen but anterior to the pubic region is either white with a gray base or completely white. The outer front legs are black with speckles and the insides are whitish with gray-based, white-tipped hairs. The fore-feet, which have four toes, are black and flecked with white. The hind feet, which have three toes, are also black with thinly scattered white hairs. At the end of each toe is a hoof-like claw. (Reid, 2009; Saussure, 1860)
Little variation exists among individuals. Juveniles are precocial and look like small adults. One dark brown, grizzled specimen from Tabasco may be a hybrid with Dasyprocta punctata, the Central American agouti. There is no description in the literature of sexual dimorphism, seasonal variation in pelage, recognition of sub-species, or intraspecific polymorphisms. (Emmons and Feer, 1997)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range mass
- 2 to 5 kg
- 4.41 to 11.01 lb
- Range length
- 466 to 587 mm
- 18.35 to 23.11 in
Little is known about the reproductive behavior of Mexican agoutis. Breeding pairs produce either one or two offspring each dry season. Young have been observed between the months of January and May. (Coates-Estrada and Estrada, 1986a; Reid, 2009; Vázquez, et al., 2010)
Mexican agoutis are generally observed alone or in groups of two. A single breeding pair may claim a territory of 1 to 2 hectares and males do not tolerate rivals within their territory. Gestation lasts between 104 and 120 days. More detailed information exists on Central American agoutis, which becomes sexually mature between 6 and 20 months after leaving the nest. Young initially live in small burrows and leave the burrow to nurse. (Coates-Estrada and Estrada, 1986b; Emmons and Feer, 1997; Reid, 2009; Smythe, 1978; Vázquez, et al., 2010)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Mexican agoutis breed once each year
- Breeding season
- Mexican agoutis breed during the dry season
- Range number of offspring
- 1 to 2
- Range gestation period
- 104 to 120 days
Limited information exists on parental care in Mexican agoutis. However, similar to other mammals, mothers nurse their young until weaning. Young develop quickly and follow their mother after they are born. (Reid, 2009)
- Parental Investment
There is little information available on longevity in Mexican agoutis. In captivity, one individual lived for 13.1 years. (AnAge, 2011)
- Range lifespan
- 13.1 (high) years
- Range lifespan
Mexican agoutis utilize holes in the trunks of fallen trees, which often have two exits. They also live in dens under the large roots of old trees, under rocks, or in other natural cavities. Often, they line their dens with leaf litter and other vegetation. (Alvarez Del Toro, 1977)
- Range territory size
- 0.01 to 0.02 km^2
Little information is available on average home range size in Mexican agoutis, however, a single breeding pair may claim a territory of 1 to 2 hectares. (Vázquez, et al., 2010)
Communication and Perception
Mexican agoutis make alarm calls by stamping their feet and producing sharp nasal-sounding barks while running away. Many species of agouti (e.g., common agoutis, black agoutis, brown agoutis, and ) make loud gnawing noises when eating. Currently, no further information exists concerning communication and perception in Mexican agoutis. (Emmons and Feer, 1997; Reid, 2009)
Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae), Pseudolmedia oxyphyllaria (Moraceae), Bosimum alicastrum (Moraceae), Ficus yoponensis (Moraceae), Astrocaryum mexicanum (Palmae), and Nectandra ambigens (Lauraceae). It also eats the seeds of Cymbopetalum baillonii (Annonaceae), but not of Pouteria sapota (Sapotaceae). Captive Mexican agoutis eat a wide range of foods including rabbit pellets, peanuts, corn, fruits, and carrots. A study of tree visitation based on records of agouti tracks found a significant number of tracks surrounding Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae), Cymbopetalum baillonii (Annonaceae), and Omphalea oleifera (Euphorbiaceae), suggesting that these tree species are also important food resources. (Alvarez Del Toro, 1977; Burkey, 1994; Coates-Estrada and Estrada, 1986a; Coates-Estrada and Estrada, 1986b; Cucchi-Stefanoni, et al., 2008; Sanchez-Cordero and Martinez-Gallardo, 1998; Vázquez, et al., 2010)is primarily a fruigivore, but also consumes fruits and leaves. It eats new growth plant matter, bark, soft seeds, and fruit from various trees. eats the fruits of
- Plant Foods
- wood, bark, or stems
- seeds, grains, and nuts
Mexican agoutis escape predation by relying on their speed, and their grizzled coloration helps camouflage them from potential predators. They often have escape holes along the length of fallen trees. These holes have two exits, which allows the agouti to escape through one exit while the predator waits at the other exit. If available, they also use tunnels between closely spaced rocks and other natural cavities. When startled they run away making strange grunts and fluffing their long rump hairs. Sometimes these alarm shrieks alert nearby agoutis who keep a guarded distance if the predator is a cat (Felidae) or a raptor (Falconiformes). However, if the predator is a snake (Serpentes), other agoutis may attack it, jumping and biting. Throughout their range, agoutis are an important food source for jaguars (Panthera onca). (Alvarez Del Toro, 1977; Rodriguez-Soto, et al., 2011)
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae), Cymbopetalum baillonii (Annonaceae), and Omphalea oleifera (Euphorbiaceae), suggesting that these tree species are also important food resources. also feeds on bark, and trees can die after agoutis strip a continuous ring of bark around from the base. By eating seedlings and dispersing seeds it can influence composition and spatial distribution of tree species throughout the forests in which they reside. is an important food resource for jaguars (Panthera onca) in Mexico. In captivity, it has been parasitized by Echidnophaga fleas, which can cause death by anemia. Native fleas (Rhopalopsyllus australis australis) also feed on . In Cuba, where it is introduced, it poses a potential threat to native flora and fauna. It may compete with the hutia conga (Capromys pilorides) for food and shelter. (Borroto-Paez, 2009; Burkey, 1994; Cucchi-Stefanoni, et al., 2008; Rodriguez-Soto, et al., 2011; Sanchez-Cordero and Martinez-Gallardo, 1998)is an important seed disperser and seed predator and is among the most important seed predators at Los Tuxtlas biological reserve in Veracruz, Mexico. A study of tree visitation based on records of agouti tracks found a significant number of tracks surrounding
- Ecosystem Impact
- disperses seeds
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
- Negative Impacts
- crop pest
Common names include serete, zerete, cerreti, cuatuza, cuacechi, guaqueque negro, Mexican agouti, and Mexican black agouti. Remains from a cave in Oaxaca, Mexico suggest that D. punctata may once have lived sympatrically. (Alvarez Del Toro, 1977; Alvarez, 1963; Emmons and Feer, 1997; Reid, 2009)and
Leslie McGinnis (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Berini (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
- scent marks
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
- young precocial
young are relatively well-developed when born
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Cucchi-Stefanoni, K., C. Juan-Salles, A. Paras, M. Garner. 2008. Fatal anemia and dermatitis in captive agoutis (Dasyprocta mexicana) infested with Echidnophaga fleas. Veterinary Parasitology, 155, 3-4: 336-339. Accessed March 14, 2011 at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TD7-4SGD4X0-2&_user=10&_coverDate=08%2F17%2F2008&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=e97a25377662a13d11c00d6a3f5060c6&searchtype=a.
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Ramirez-Pulido, J., R. Lopez-Wilchis, C. Mudespacher Ziehl, I. Lira. 1983. Lista y bibliografia reciente de los mamiferos de Mexico. Mexico, D. F.: Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Iztapalapa.
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Rodriguez-Soto, C., O. Monroy-Vilchis, L. Maiorano, L. Boitani, J. Faller, M. Briones, R. Nunez, O. Rosas-Rosas, G. Ceballos, A. Falcucci. 2011. Predicting potential distribution of the jaguar (Panthera onca) in Mexico: identification of priority areas for conservation. Diversity and Distributions, 17: 350-361.
Sanchez-Cordero, V., R. Martinez-Gallardo. 1998. Postdispersal Fruit and Seed Removal by Forest-Dwelling Rodents in a Lowland Rainforest in Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology, Vol. 14, No. 2: 139-151.
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