Big-eared opossums ( ("InfoNatura: Birds, mammals and amphibians of Latin America", 2003; Emmons, 1997)) are Neotropical marsupials found along the Atlantic coast of Brazil to northeastern Argentina and southeastern Paraguay.
Big-eared opossums live in Atlantic rainforests, secondary Atlantic forests, and Araucaria highlands. They are also found in forests fragmented by urban development and deforestation. Their habitat has are two discrete seasons, a warm rainy season, which lasts from September to March and a cool dry season, which lasts from April to August. The mean annual temperature in their habitat is between 17 and 24°C, with a mean annual rainfall of 1,350 to 2,000 mm. (Caceres and Monteiro-Filho, 2001; Caceres, 2003; Cerqueira and Lemos, 2000; Emmons, 1997; Grelle, 2003; Leite, et al., 1996)
- Terrestrial Biomes
- Range elevation
- 1000 (high) m
- 3280.84 (high) ft
Big-eared opossums closely resemble another Neotropical marsupial, common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis). In fact, this species was once considered a subspecies of D. marsupialis. Big-eared opossums have prominent facial markings and a conspicuous black line down the center of their forehead. Their ears are naked and black. Their fur is dirty yellow, with black or gray tips. Big-eared opossums have long, prehensile tails that are furred at the base. The fur at the base of their tail is about as long as their hind legs and is at least half black and half white; the black portion is sometimes longer. In contrast, common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) do not have as much fur on the base of their tail and they usually have a shorter black portion. Aside from geographic location, this is one characteristic that can be used to distinguish the species. (Caceres, 2003; Emmons, 1997; Hume, 1999)
Male big-eared opossums tend to be larger than females. Adult males range from 1,500 to 1,880 grams during the reproductive season. Females can weigh anywhere from 1,000 to 1,300 grams in the reproductive season. (Caceres, 2003)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- male larger
- Range mass
- 700 to 1880 g
- 24.67 to 66.26 oz
- Range length
- 310 to 390 mm
- 12.20 to 15.35 in
- Average basal metabolic rate
- 611.34 cm3.O2/g/hr
Big-eared opossums are considered promiscuous. The home ranges of non-territorial males overlap with the home ranges of several territorial females and other non-territorial males. Therefore, females defend areas with sufficient resources and males seeking mates roam to find them. Licking and scratching of the cervical scent gland and vocalization helps males find females. (Caceres, 2003; Nogueira and Castro, 2003)
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
In the case of big-eared opossums, the breeding season coincides with the wet season, when fruit is most abundant. Like other marsupials, big-eared opossums undergo a brief gestation period and give birth to tiny young that crawl into the mother’s pouch where they attach to a nipple and feed for about 100 days. Weaning generally occurs at the end of the rainy season, while food is still available for the young. Females may synchronize their reproduction by photoperiod. Individuals born at the end of the current breeding season are able to reproduce at the start of the next breeding season. Using information from other South American Didelphids like common opossums, females can have 2 to 3 litters per breeding season, with an average of 7.3 young per litter. (Eisenberg and Redford, 1999; Gentile, et al., 2000; Gentile, et al., 1995)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Big-eared opossums have 2 to 3 litters each breeding season.
- Breeding season
- Big-eared opossums breed from July to March.
- Average number of offspring
- Average number of offspring
- Average gestation period
- 14 days
- Range weaning age
- 100 (high) days
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 170 to 336 days
Female big-eared opossums carry young in their pouches until weaning, which could be up to 100 days from birth. This provides protection and nutrition for the under-developed young. (Gentile, et al., 1995)
- Parental Investment
- Range lifespan
- 7 (high) years
- Range lifespan
- Average lifespan
- 2 years
- Average lifespan
- Average lifespan
- 4 years
- Average lifespan
Big-eared opossums are scansorial, nocturnal and solitary. They are mainly terrestrial, but their relatively long forelimbs and claws allow them to easily climb trees. It has been argued that big-eared opossums are exclusively terrestrial and only go into trees to escape flooding, but other studies have shown that using proper techniques, big-eared opossums can be trapped or tracked in trees as frequently as on the ground. This scansorial behavior may allow for some resource partitioning and alleviate some competition between big-eared opossums and other opossums in the area, like the terrestrial brown four-eyed opossums and the arboreal bare-tailed woolly opossums. (Caceres, 2003; Cerqueira and Lemos, 2000; Cuhna and Vieira, 2002; Leite, et al., 1996)
The average home range size for female big-eared opossums is 0.6 to 1.7 hectares in the non-reproductive season and 0.6 to 1.3 hectares in the reproductive season, when resources are more abundant. Females may also have a hierarchy, determining which female get the best territory. Males have a much larger home range of 2.3 to 2.7 hectares. (Caceres, 2003)
Communication and Perception
Big-eared opossums have a cervical scent gland. A scent-marking behavior can release the secretions of this sebaceous gland into the environment, where it is used for social communication. (Nogueira and Castro, 2003)
- Communication Channels
- Other Communication Modes
- scent marks
Big-eared opossums are opportunistic omnivores that mostly feed on arthropods and fruit; but also consume other invertebrates and small vertebrates. Scat sampling has identified several dietary items including rubbish consumed by animals living in urban areas. These animals are known to consume the following invertebrates: millipedes, harvestmen, beetles, grasshoppers and crickets, gastropods, butterfly larvae, ants, isopods and crabs. Big-eared opossums are also known to eat fruit from 13 different families including 22 identified species. Most fruit is consumed during the wet season when it is most abundant. Ingested vertebrates include rufous-bellied thrushes, the snake Liotyphlops beui, southeastern four-eyed opossums, fish and other small mammals. (Caceres and Monteiro-Filho, 2001; Caceres, 2003; Cuhna and Vieira, 2002; Hume, 1999; Leite, et al., 1996)
- Primary Diet
- Animal Foods
- terrestrial worms
- aquatic crustaceans
- Plant Foods
Information on predators specific to this species is not available, but some of the larger carnivores in their region include ocelots, pumas and jaguarundis. Jararacas are another likely predator. Jararacas are nocturnal venomous pitvipers in a group commonly known as lanceheads. Their close relative Bothrops asper is also known to feed on common opossums in Mexico and Guatemala. (Emmons, 1997; Greene, 1997; Mattison, 1999)
In response to a predator, big-eared opossums may act like their relative Virginia opossums and "play possum", or feign death to fool a predator. Additionally, common opossums are surprisingly resistant to the venomous bite of Bothrops asper. Big-eared opossums may have similar resistance to the venom of jararacas (Bothrops jararaca). (Greene, 1997; Hagmann, 2003)
Big-eared opossums and other South American marsupials are the preferred host of the tick species Ixodes loricatus. Big-eared opossums prey upon many different kinds of insects and fruits. The latter may help seed dispersal. (Barros-Battesti, et al., 2000)
- Ecosystem Impact
- disperses seeds
- ticks (Ixodes loricatus)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Possible economic benefits may include ecotourism because of their abundance in tropical rainforests.
- Positive Impacts
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Ixodes loricatus is a tick that prefers marsupial hosts and is involved in the transmission of Lyme disease. As much as 26% of big-eared opossums may be infested with this tick. (Barros-Battesti, et al., 2000)
- Negative Impacts
- carries human disease
Big-eared opossums are one of the most common marsupials in their home range. They were trapped with the highest frequency in most studies conducted in coastal Brazil involving small mammals. However, deforestation rates in that area are high and only 5% of the original rainforest remains. This may pose a threat to big-eared opossums and other rainforest species in the future. (Cuhna and Vieira, 2002; Gentile, et al., 2000; Grelle, 2003; Leite, et al., 1996; Pires, et al., 2002)
Leila Siciliano Martina (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
Matthew Wund (editor), The College of New Jersey.
Patrick Cusick (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor, instructor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
humans benefit economically by promoting tourism that focuses on the appreciation of natural areas or animals. Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
- scent marks
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
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