Rosy wolfsnails (Euglandina rosea) are native to the nearctic region. This includes many southern and southeastern states in the United States. They are found throughout the entirety of Florida, and historically as far north as Georgia and South Carolina. They are found as far west as the southeastern border of Texas. Their range also includes Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. In 2006, a population was found in a suburb of Nashville, Tennessee.
They have been introduced to a number of regions, including Hawaii. These introduced areas include much of Oceania, including American Samoa, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, New Caledonia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Their extended introduced range continues into Asia, like the territory of Hong Kong in China, Japan, Taiwan, and North Borneo. Two islands off the east and southeast of Africa, Madagascar, and Seychelles. They have also been introduced to India and Sri Lanka and continue southward in islands within the India Ocean, like the Andaman Islands, Mauritius, and the Reunion islands. They have also been introduced to the Bahamas and Bermuda. (Cook, 1985; Davis, et al., 2004; Irwin, et al., 2016; "Snail-eating snails of Florida, Gastropoda", 2021; "USP Introduced Land Snails of the Fiji Islands Fact Sheet Series", 2012; Wolfe and Brooks, 1968)
Rosy wolfsnails, in their native range, are commonly found in temperate deciduous and mixed forests. Because they are evenly distributed across their native range, elevation is yet unreported. Within their range in the southeastern United States, areas of high leaf litter accumulation serve as the primary micro-habitats for rosy wolfsnails. They are known to climb trees and persist above the forest floor in especially moist and shaded conditions. While rosy wolfsnails appear in mixed forests, they are most commonly found in hardwood forests, forests where the predominate trees are salt cedars (genus Tamarisk), and areas of adequate moisture level located near or below flood plains. Rosy wolfsnails have been seen also foraging in urban settings, such as recreational forest areas and home gardens, and even along roadsides.
Their introduced habitats are primarily tropical islands and tropical rainforests. Similar to their native habitats, rosy wolfsnails are widespread in invaded areas but most commonly occur in leaf litter and under shrubs in forests. (Davis, et al., 2004; Irwin, et al., 2016; Meyer and Cowie, 2011; "Snail-eating snails of Florida, Gastropoda", 2021; "USP Introduced Land Snails of the Fiji Islands Fact Sheet Series", 2012)
Rosy wolfsnails reach an average length of 10.8 cm (range: 1.9 to 34.92 cm), average shell width of 6.86 cm in diameter (range: 2.75 to 15.83 cm), an average shell height (foot to shell) of 76 mm, and an average weight of 2.84 g. A study in 1994 reported the difference length ranges for each developmental stage of rosy wolfsnails, summarized as: hatchlings (less than 1.0 cm), juvenile (1.0 to 3.0 cm), subadult (3.1 to 4.0 cm), and adult (greater than 4.0 cm). A 2012 study reported measures of average length, shell width, and weight sampled from 52 individuals: 34.92 cm shell length, 15.83 cm shell width, and 2.84 g weight. The texture of rosy wolfsnail shells are smooth and taper from anterior to posterior, becoming its widest and tallest at the center of their visceral mass. They also have many visually distinct ridges that travel anterior to posterior vertically along the length of their shells. Their shells are nearly translucent and brownish-pinkish in appearance, while their actual skin is a darker wine purplish-brown. The head has two pairs of tentacles - a lower, shorter horizontal pair and a longer, upper vertical pair. The upper pair of tentacles each end with a small black eye, and the head and neck distinctly extend from anterior side of their shell. They also have a pair of slightly up-curved lip extensions located on either side of their heads.
Rosy wolfsnail eggs measure 6 to 7 x 4 to 5 mm and weigh an average of 0.016 g. Eggs are oblong and white in appearance and have a coarse texture. Newly-hatched and young rosy wolfsnails are also oblong and smooth, but have a polished texture to their shells. Their skin and shells darken with age. Because rosy wolfsnails are hermaphrodites, there is no sexual dimorphism at maturity nor through development. Snails are considered mature after an average of 250 days after hatching. (Chiu and Chou, 1962; Cilfford, et al., 2003; Gerlach, 1994; Holland, et al., 2012; Irwin, et al., 2016; Meyer and Cowie, 2011; "Snail-eating snails of Florida, Gastropoda", 2021; "USP Introduced Land Snails of the Fiji Islands Fact Sheet Series", 2012)
Rosy wolfsnails have three life stages: the egg stage, juvenile snail stage, and the adult snail stage. The egg stage typically lasts between 27 and 43 days (average: 34 days). Newborns hatch somewhat synchronously and the juvenile snail stage typically lasts 4 to 10 months. If juveniles hatch prior to or during winter months, they remain in this juvenile stage longer than those that hatched after their hibernation period (typically after March). Both juveniles and adult rosy wolfsnails hibernate. They grow in size during their juvenile stage and get progressively darker in overall color. The adult snail stage typically lasts 2 to 16 months. Rosy wolfsnails are considered adults once they are sexually mature, between 5 and 11 months after hatching, depending on how early they hatched. Because rosy wolfsnails are hermaphrodites, sex cannot be determined or be seen as a difference as they develop. As adults, rosy wolfsnails grow indeterminately.
One study reported that rosy wolfsnails raised in field rearing situations began their life cycles two months earlier than those strictly raised in captivity. Additionally, rosy wolfsnails raised in field rearing situations produced eggs between May and October twice after maturity, while rosy wolfsnails raised strictly in captivity produced eggs only in the first May and October after maturity, and died in October after oviposition. (Chiu and Chou, 1962; Cook, 1985)
Because rosy wolfsnails are hermaphrodites, mate selection is not dependent on sex. Rosy wolfsnails are polygynandrous, meaning they do not couple and have multiple partners during their mating season. Rosy wolfsnails detect mates by tracking slime trails and select mates based on size similarity. Once a rosy wolfsnail individual finds a mate, courtship proceeds through five steps: mounting, head movement display, repositioning, genitalia locking, and demounting. One report also documented snail mating that occurred at night or in the early morning. Additionally, snails may mate 1 to 4 times before they lay eggs.
One study described five steps involved in rosy wolfsnail reproduction, beginning with mounting, which differentiates the pair as a “pursued” snail and a “pursuing” snail. Mounting occurs when the pursuing snail climbs onto the shell of the pursued snail and mounts itself there. The pursued snail completely stops moving when mounted. Once mounted, the pursuing snail moves its head along the pursued snail’s extended neck, repeatedly tapping its lip extensions on the pursued snail’s neck. This step typically lasts for about 2 to 3 minutes. Next, the pursued snail repositions its neck completely vertically and rotates its head to face the pursuing snail, which has raised its head similarly. Both snails then begin rapid head waving, moving their lip extensions and tentacles across the head and neck of their partner. This step typically lasts for about 15 minutes, after which the rapid head movements stop. Then, the pursued snail moves its lip extensions to the genitalia of the pursuing snail, and both snails begin to retract their necks and bring their genitalia together. At this point, the genitalia of both snails are visible. This step typically lasts for about 5 minutes. Next, the genitalia of the two mating snails join. Aside from the movement of reproductive parts and tentacles, both snails stay still during this step, which can go on for up to 4 hours. Lastly, once copulation is completed, the genitalia of the mating snails retract and the two part ways.
The genitalia of rosy wolfsnails consists of a thin, white penis with a thick rim at the base, and a large sarcobelum, a dome-shaped structure with rows of bristles or “love darts” located anterior to the penis. When rosy wolfsnails lock their genitalia with a mate, the tip of the sarcobelum of one snail rotates with the rim of the other snail, pushing their bristles further into the rim of their mate. This same process happens simultaneously in the other direction, so that both snails are receiving bristles from the other. (Chiu and Chou, 1962; Cook, 1985; Ng, et al., 2013)
Rosy wolfsnails readily reproduce in the wild from late May to early November. In laboratory rearing settings, some rosy wolfsnails began sexual activity as early as late April. Rosy wolfsnails mate with partners multiple times throughout their breeding season. They breed every 1 to 4 weeks and have around 1 to 4 partners before laying eggs. They typically lay 25 to 35 eggs in each oviposition event. Oviposition typically takes 1 to 4 days to complete, and rosy wolfsnails oviposit an average of 7 times per season. They produce an average of 103 eggs per season (range 78 - 163 eggs).
Rosy wolfsnails lay their eggs in shallow patches of soil, leaving them to hatch. Time until hatching can range from 27 to 43 days (average 34 days). Newly-hatched snails weigh 0.03 to 0.04 grams and are immediately independent.
Breeding seasons for rosy wolfsnail populations occur anytime throughout the year except when they are hibernating, which is typically from December to March. Rosy wolfsnails have induced ovulation (i.e., ovulation is prompted by copulation). They employ internal fertilization, and because they are simultaneous hermaphrodites, both partner snails exchange sperm and individually lay their eggs. Rosy wolfsnails reach sexual maturity between 5 and 11 months after hatching, and because they are hermaphrodites there is no sex difference upon reaching sexual maturity. (Chiu and Chou, 1962; Cook, 1985; Ng, et al., 2013; Sugiura, et al., 2011)
Hermaphroditic rosy wolfsnails provide no parental investment beyond the acts of mating and egg-laying. Rosy wolfsnails lay their clutches of eggs in shallow patches of soil, and leave soon after their eggs have been deposited. (Chiu and Chou, 1962; Sugiura, et al., 2011)
The expected lifespan and longest known lifespan of rosy wolfsnails in the wild are not reported. When rosy wolfsnails were raised in captivity and in situations designed to replicate field conditions, they completed their life cycles in 16 months on average. The longest known lifespan of a rosy wolfsnail in captivity is 24 months. Rosy wolfsnails in their native range experience predation in the wild, which is their typical cause of death. In their introduced ranges they may not experience the same level of predation; given that those regions are warmer and more humid, rosy wolfsnails in those areas may live longer. (Chiu and Chou, 1962; Gerlach, 1994)
Rosy wolfsnails are terricolous, meaning they primarily live and hunt on the ground. Because they exclusive hunt tree-climbing snails, they are partially arboreal. Rosy wolfsnails are known to temporarily climb up trees and branches to chase prey, but return to the ground shortly thereafter. They follow their snail prey by tracking slime trails. Rosy wolfsnails utilize slime-trail tracking in many ways, including predation, species identification, and mate detection. They are nocturnal and crepuscular, meaning they are primarily active at night, sunset, and daybreak. While rosy wolfsnails are slow, they are still motile and move around via their lateral foot.
Rosy wolfsnails are most commonly found in leaf litter on the forest floor. They use the leaf litter for both hunting and hiding from predators. Their coloration does not lend to any particular kind of camouflage. Their mute colors and slow locomotion assist in hiding within the underbrush.
Rosy wolfsnails are widely spread throughout the habitats they occupy, but are neither nomadic nor migratory. They are sedentary to their local region, and hibernate for about 3 to 4 months out of the year. They typically hibernate between December and March when temperatures are cool and precipitation and humidity are low. One study reported that temperatures impact activity of rosy wolfsnails, and ideal active temperatures are 20 to 30 °C. In this study, lower temperatures inhibited growth, reduced how many snails hatched in a clutch, and extended incubation times.
As environmental conditions reach the optimum temperature and humidity for rosy wolfsnails, their activity increases. In their introduced ranges, specifically tropical islands, rosy wolfsnails hibernate for shorter periods. Rosy wolfsnails exhibit aestivation when there is hot weather, little humidity and moisture, and/or little food available.
For most of their lives, rosy wolfsnails are solitary. During their breeding season, they will readily seek out and mate with many partners, but they neither couple nor form permanent communities. The slime trails that rosy wolfsnails leave contain chemicals that the snails use for many purposes. It has been suggested that these chemicals allow for species recognition and group aggregation. There are no reports on whether the quality of their slime promotes or encourages increased social or colonial activity. Much of the literature reports that, aside from the act of breeding, rosy wolfsnails are mostly solitary but not territorial. Slime identification is necessary in this species, as adult rosy wolfsnails do encounter smaller juveniles and likely do not eat them due to their shared slime.
Rosy wolfsnails have five steps in their copulation ritual, the most obvious is the mounting of one snail on another, the erect positioning and rapid waving of their heads. One study suggests that this movement is necessary for mating snails to identify each other, as well as being part of their courtship ritual. Rosy wolfsnails are hermaphroditic, and both snails involved in a copulation event transfer genetic material to their partner. (Chiu and Chou, 1962; Cilfford, et al., 2003; Cowie, et al., 2017; "Feeding ecology of the introduced predatory snail Euglandina rosea (Férussac) in Hawai'i: Implications for the preservation of native land snail species", 2006; Gerlach, 1994; Griffiths, et al., 1993; Holland, et al., 2012; Meyer and Cowie, 2011; Urry, et al., 2017; "USP Introduced Land Snails of the Fiji Islands Fact Sheet Series", 2012)
While research describes the general home region and range for rosy wolfsnails, their home range has not been quantified and they do not defend a territory. (Cook, 1985; Davis, et al., 2004; Gerlach, 1994; Irwin, et al., 2016; Wolfe and Brooks, 1968)
Rosy wolfsnails, like all terrestrial snails, are sensitive to high-light settings. While they can discern the direction of light, rosy wolfsnails are more reliant on navigating by detecting slime trails. Terrestrial, marine, and aquatic wolfsnails all secrete mucus from a lateral foot to facilitate movement. Deposited in these slime trails are water-soluble chemicals. The compounds present in the mucus are left behind as snail move, leaving a slime trail that other gastropods can detect. Snails use slime trails to identify and track potential mates, prey species, or other sympatric snail species. Slime trails also facilitate local group aggregation and ease of locomotion through complex environments.
Rosy wolfsnails forage for species of snails at night, tasting and detecting the chemicals present in the slime trails. A study in 2012 suggested that rosy wolfsnails recognize slime trails of specific snail species and purposefully choose which trail to follow. While they do not depend on scent as much as slime trail chemcials, intense smells interrupt their ability to follow trails. Rosy wolfsnails have unique tentacle lip extensions that allow them to differentiate between slime trails by tasting the slime. Newly-hatched young and juveniles also display a high degree of distinction between slime trails. (Bick, et al., 2021; Cilfford, et al., 2003; Holland, et al., 2012; Ng, et al., 2013; Urry, et al., 2017)
Rosy wolfsnails are exclusive molluscivores, meaning their diet consists of consuming only other terrestrial snails. They primarily hunt on the ground but have been noted temporarily climbing trees or venturing underwater to pursue prey. There are some reported instances of rosy wolfsnails consuming slug species such as cuban slugs (Veronicella cubensis) and marsh slugs (Deroceras laeve), but only after long periods without their typical snail prey species. Rosy wolfsnails are generalist predators, although there are reports of rosy wolfsnails specifically targeting small terrestrial snail species. Their food habits demonstrate that they can consume snails up to twice their own size. Common prey species include but are not limited to giant African snails (Achatina fulica), asian tramp snails (Bradyaena similaris), thumbnail awlsnails (Subulina octona), Omphalotropis taeniata, Omphalotropis rubens, Opeas gracile, Opeas pyrugla, Philomycus bilineatus, Pilula preaetumdia, slugs in the genus Limax, and members of the snail genera Duponita and Louisia. Additionally, a study in 2004 reported four species of snail in Florida that could be prey snails for rosy wolfsnails: Ventridens demissus, Stenotrema maxillatum, Oligyra orbiculata, and Mesodon thyroidus. A study from 1993 reported the contents of 209 rosy wolfsnail individuals in Mauritius, concluding that 70% of their diet consisted of native snails in laboratory settings and 44% in the field. They specifically mentioned that giant African snails only contributed to 5% of their diets. Rosy wolfsnails generally do not consume empty shells of their prey species and they can withstand long periods without food. A study from 1962 reported that rosy wolfsnails between 0 and 3 months old could tolerate 2 months deprived of food.
Cannibalism is rare among rosy wolfsnails, even during long periods of starvation. When cannibalism does occur, it is often among newly-hatched individuals during periods of starvation. There is no discernible difference in cannabalism rates between sexes, because rosy wolfsnails are hermaphrodites. Diets of adult rosy wolfsnails differ little from juveniles, other than rare occurrence of cannibalism and size restrictions in juvenile snails.
Rosy wolfsnails primarily hunt during the nighttime. They typically hibernate from December to March, during which predation decreases drastically. Rosy wolfsnails consume their prey whole or, if prey are too large, consume them in large pieces. They employ no food shortage strategies. (Chiu and Chou, 1962; Civeyrel and Simberloff, 1996; Davis, et al., 2004; "Feeding ecology of the introduced predatory snail Euglandina rosea (Férussac) in Hawai'i: Implications for the preservation of native land snail species", 2006; Gerlach, 1994; Griffiths, et al., 1993; Kinize III, 1992)
Predators of rosy wolfsnails in their native range have not been reported. However, predators in their introduced regions have been extensively reported. Black rats (Rattus rattus) are reported preying on rosy wolfsnails in Hawai’i. Black rats, brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Polynesian rats (Rattus exulans) prey on rosy wolfsnails across introduced regions. Additionally, tailless tenrecs (Tenrec ecaudatus), wild boars (Sus scrofa), Indian grey mongoose (Herpestes edwardsi), and red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) are the only introduced predators for rosy wolfsnails. Gerlach (1994) reported that other carnivorous snails feed on rosy wolfsnails, but reported no particular species.
Specifically, the three rats will create a hole in the shell, pulling out the body. Wild boars crack the shells completely, while the tailless tenrecs will destroy some of their shells, but leave the shells largely intact. Mongoose specifically target the dorsal point of the shell. When attacked by a predator, their primary defense mechanism is to retreat into their shell and become completely immobile. Rosy wolfsnails eggs have no defense mechanisms aside from being hidden, and juveniles utilize the same defense tactics as adults. (Gerlach, 1994; Meyer and Shiels, 2009)
Rosy wolfsnails are molluscivores, meaning they exclusively prey on terrestrial snails and some terrestrial slugs. Rosy wolfsnails are preyed on primarily by small mammals, including several rat species (genus Rattus), and tailless tenrecs (Tenrec ecaudatus). Other predators include Indian grey mongooses (Herpestes edwardsi), wild boars (Sus scrofa), and red junglefowl (Gallus gallus).
Rosy wolfsnails serve as hosts for at least two internal parasites: the trematode species Parabrachylaima euglandensis and nematode species Angiostrongylus cantoensis. Angiostrongylus cantoensis are parasites of rat species - most commonly brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) - that complete their life cycle through an intermediate snail or slug host before reaching maturity in a rat. Angiostrongylus cantoensis is spread to snails or slugs that consume rat feces with eggs of Angiostrongylus cantoensis, after which the eggs develop into their larval stages and are transmitted into a rat host when a rat consumes an infected snail or slug. Rosy wolfsnails become hosts for Angiostrongylus cantoensis by consuming an infected snail prey species. The pathway for infection for Parabrachylaima euglandensis is not reported. (Campbell and Little, 1988; Chiu and Chou, 1962; Civeyrel and Simberloff, 1996; Davis, et al., 2004; "Feeding ecology of the introduced predatory snail Euglandina rosea (Férussac) in Hawai'i: Implications for the preservation of native land snail species", 2006; Gerlach, 1994; Griffiths, et al., 1993; Kinize III, 1992; Lotz and Corkum, 1975; Medeiros, et al., 2020; Meyer and Shiels, 2009)
Rosy wolfsnails were introduced to Hawaii and other environments as a potential biocontrol for giant African snails (Achatina fulica). However, their introduction has shown little success in reducing the population of giant African snails in those introduced regions. There is little research to support the conclusion that rosy wolfsnails are an effective biocontrol for giant African snails, or any other non-native snail species.
Rosy wolfsnails are studied for educational purposes for better understanding invasive species and population decline due to invasive species. (Christensen, et al., 2021; Civeyrel and Simberloff, 1996; Gerlach, 2001; "USP Introduced Land Snails of the Fiji Islands Fact Sheet Series", 2012)
Rosy wolfsnails have not been evaluated, and thus are not listed on the IUCN Red List. They have no special status on the US Federal list, CITES, or the State of Michigan list.
Rosy wolfsnails have few threats that could cause populations to decline. They are generalist predators and have been introduced to many tropical regions, where they experience regular warm temperatures, constant moisture, and humidity. These conditions allow rosy wolfsnails to have a steady supply of prey and breed frequently. A major threat to rosy wolfsnails, like many other species, is climate change. Since rosy wolfsnails are adapted to humid, warm environments, they may struggle in regions that are expected to become drier. As climate change disrupts other terrestrial snail populations, rosy wolfsnails may encounter challenges with access to food.
Rosy wolfsnails are a highly disruptive invasive species across much of their reported introduced ranges, and they have been linked to the direct decline and even extinction of several snail species. The impact of these extinctions and steep declines in native snail populations has influenced the ecosystems in which they have been introduced, yet the ramifications to human lives has not been reported. Efforts to reduce their population sizes have shown little success in both implementation and practicality. Rosy wolfsnails populations grow rapidly and are immediately active predators toward other snail species. No literature has reported on population crashes of rosy wolfsnails as they exhaust the native populations of snails, suggesting that rosy wolfsnails are able to sustain their populations beyond the limits of native populations. A study in 1984 reported that efforts have focused more on preservation by collecting specimens from native populations to supply captive populations. Maintaining captive populations of species that rosy wolfsnails would otherwise eradicate is the primarily conservation strategy for these vulnerable species. (Clarke, et al., 1984; Coote, et al., 2004; Cowie, et al., 2017; Gerlach, et al., 2021; Hadfield, et al., 1993; Meyer and Cowie, 2011; Shivambu, et al., 2020)
Luc White (author), Radford University, Sierra Felty (editor), Radford University, Bianca Plowman (editor), Radford University, Karen Powers (editor), Radford University, Victoria Raulerson (editor), Radford University, Christopher Wozniak (editor), Radford University, Genevieve Barnett (editor), Colorado State University, Galen Burrell (editor), Special Projects.
Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
Animals with indeterminate growth continue to grow throughout their lives.
ovulation is stimulated by the act of copulation (does not occur spontaneously)
fertilization takes place within the female's body
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
eats mollusks, members of Phylum Mollusca
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
islands that are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass, most typically these are volcanic islands.
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
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