Relatively little information is available about the mating system of (del Hoyo, et al., 1994). is monogamous; both males and females engage in elaborate flying and loud crying as part of the courtship display.
The breeding season for Falcon biarmicus varies significantly throughout its range. In southern Europe and northern Africa, the laying period is February through May. In the Sahara, western and northeastern Africa, the laying period is from January through March. In east, central and south Africa, the laying period is from June through November. Nesting habitat also varies; typical sites include abandoned raptor or heron nests, in trees, cliff faces, on the ground (desert areas) and buildings. A brood typically includes 3 to 4 eggs with an incubation period of around 32 days, fledging occurs in 35 to 47 days. (del Hoyo, et al., 1994)
We do not have information on the lifespan of Falco biarmicus at this time.
We do not have information on home range for this species at this time.
Like all raptors, ("Falcon - Lanner", 2003)relies mostly on its keen sense of sight to hunt prey both in the air and on the ground. It has a variety of calls for different situations and communicates with other individuals acoustically, especially in territorial disputes and courtship rituals. It is known for its loud, repeated "kak-kak" call.
Lanner falcons are carnivores. They feed on a variety of terrestrial and flying prey. Their main food sources are smaller birds, especially quails and columbids. Falco biarmicus also feeds on lizards, rodents, and bats, as well as spiders and scorpions in desert areas. If competition for these food resources is high, or locusts and other flying insects are swarming, F. biarmicus will also gorge itself on insects. (del Hoyo, et al., 1994; "Falcon - Lanner", 2003)
There are no known predators of adult ("Falcon - Lanner", 2003), and the species thrives in any area where it is left alone by humans. However, F. biarmicus eggs are vulnerable to scavengers that feed on them, as well as humans who rob nests for the pet/falconry industry.
Limited information is available about the role of this species in its ecosystem . (del Hoyo, et al., 1994)> shares a niche with many other raptors, and competition between lanner falcons and peregrin falcons is high. Both feed primarily on small birds, however, F. biarmicus is able to adjust its diet accordingly if competition for this resource is too high. Lanner falcons are likely hosts to mites that commonly infest other birds; apart from this relationship, the main role of lanner falcons in an ecosystem is that of predators at the top of the food web.
It is estimated that fewer than 1400 breeding pairs of (BirdLife International, 1999)exist in the world. Although not listed on the IUCN Red list, it is classified in Appendix II by CITES and is considered endangered at the European level. The population of F. biarmicus has decreased severely in the last fifty years due to destruction and loss of habitat, as well as human persecution (hunting, theft of eggs, and disturbance of nesting sites).
Alaine Camfield (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Zachary Zeneberg (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
The Central Pets Educational Foundation. 2003. "Falcon - Lanner" (On-line). Centralpets.com. Accessed April 21, 2004 at http://www.centralpets.com/phpscripts/PrintFriendly.php?AnimalNumber=3011.
The Edinburgh Bird of Prey Centre. 2003. "Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus)" (On-line). Accessed April 21, 2004 at http://www.birdsofprey.org.uk/Lanner%20Falcon.htm.
European Communities. 2003. "Lanner Falcon - Falco biarmicus" (On-line). Accessed April 21, 2004 at http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/nature/directive/falco_biarmicus_en.htm.
BirdLife International, 1999. Lanner Falcon - Falco biarmicus. International Species Action Plan. Accessed April 21, 2004 at http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/nature/directive/birdactionplan/16_actions_plan/05falco_biarmicus.pdf.
Channing, K. 2003. "Lanner Falcon - Falco biarmicus" (On-line). The Hawk Conservancy and Country Park. Accessed April 21, 2004 at http://www.hawk-conservancy.org/priors/lanner.shtml.
Lasnier, J. 2003. "Faucon lanier - Lanner falcon" (On-line). Lasnier Canada. Accessed April 21, 2004 at http://www.lasnier-canada.org/PAGE/oiseau.html.
Leonardi, G. 2001. Falco biarmicus - Lanner Falcon. BWP Update, 3(3): 157-174. Accessed April 21, 2004 at http://www3.oup.co.uk/bwpjnl/hdb/Volume_03/Issue_03/030157.sgm.abs.html.
del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J. Sargatal. 1994. Lanner Falcon. Pp. 273 in Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 2, 1st Edition. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 1994.