- Terrestrial Biomes
- savanna or grassland
- Other Habitat Features
Adults are quite small, approximately half the size of a house fly. Muscomorpha. Larvae of are approximately 7mm long. The maggots are a pale yellow color, with a simple, elongate, body that lacks a sclerotized head. A pair of sclerotized, vertically biting mandibles are visible on the anterior end of the head. (Roberts and Janovy, 2000; Skidmore, 1985)is gray in color with the large compound eyes and reduced antennae typical of flies in the infraorder
- Average length
- 7 mm
- 0.28 in
Gravid females lay approximately 18 eggs in groups of 4-6 on fresh cattle droppings. Larvae hatch within 24 hours and begin feeding. After five days, the larvae have passed through three instar stages and are ready to pupate. Adults emerge from the puparium five days later. In colder climates, however, the life cycle of (Skidmore, 1985)may take up to three weeks for completion.
- Average eggs per season
- Key Behaviors
- Animal Foods
- Other Foods
The predatory larvae of several other species of insect, including beetles of the family Staphylinidae, prey upon the larvae of . In order for larvae to have a chance to develop, their eggs must be laid quickly; before those of other insects. (Blume, et al., 1970; Roberts and Janovy, 2000; Skidmore, 1985)
- Known Predators
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There are no known economic benefits derived from this species.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
A serious pest of cattle, Stephanofilaria stilesi. This nematode causes damage to the skin of cows. Attempts have been made to eradicate using pesticides. Unfortunatley, resistant populations of emerge within a few weeks after treatment begins. (Derouen, et al., 1995; Roberts and Janovy, 2000)can cause cows to lose weight and lower milk production by biting while the cows attempt to feed. Cattle spend time trying to relive themselves of irritation rather than eating. Thousands of can be present on a single cow, causing that cow extreme discomfort. In addition to simply bothering cattle, is capable of transmiting the nematode
- Negative Impacts
- causes or carries domestic animal disease
requires no special conservations status.
Sara Diamond (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Michael Harris (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Teresa Friedrich (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
- causes or carries domestic animal disease
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
an animal that mainly eats the dung of other animals
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an animal that mainly eats blood
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
Blume, R., S. Kunz, B. Hogan, J. Matter. 1970. Biological and Ecological Investigations of Horn Flies in Central Texas: Influence of Other Insects in Cattle Manure. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63: 1121-1123.
Derouen, S., L. Foil, J. Knox, J. Turpin. 1995. Horn Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Control and Weight Gains of Yearling Beef Cattle. Veterinary Entomology, 83: 666-668.
Hu, G., J. Frank. 1996. Effect of the Arthropod Community on Survivorship of Immature Haematobia Irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) in North Central Florida. Florida Entomologist, 79: 497-502.
Roberts, L., J. Janovy. 2000. Foundations of Parasitology. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Skidmore, P. 1985. The Biology of the Muscidae of the World. Dordrecht: Dr W. Junk Publishers.