is oval shaped and convex. It is a polymorphic species, with three main color morphs: red or orange with zero to many black spots (form succinea), or black with either four orange spots (form spectabilis) or two (form conspicua). Several less common morphs exist as well. Darker morphs are more common in its native range, with red or orange morphs more common in Europe and North America. The pronotum is generally white with four black spots that tend to form an "M" shape. This species has very distinct, square "shoulders." The last ventral segment on its abdomen differs between male and female individuals.
The eggs ofare approximately 1.2 mm in length and yellow in color. Just before hatching, eggs darken to a gray or black coloration.
The larvae ofhave long bodies and are black with orange coloration (including two long orange lines on the dorsal-lateral areas of the abdomen, which start to develop after the first instar and are complete by the fourth and final instar). They have double-branched spines (scoli) running down the length of the body. The larval stages often grow longer than the final adult individual, starting at an approximate length of 1.9 to 2.1 mm in the first instar and growing to 7.5 to 10.7 mm in the fourth instar. Larvae vaguely resemble tiny black and orange alligators.
Pupae are exposed and generally shaped like an elongated dome, often attached to leaves. They tend to be orange, with the fourth instar exoskeleton still attached at the point of substrate attachment. (Arnett, 1993; Banks, 1957; Gordon, 1985; Hagan, 1962; Hodek, 1996; Sasaji, 1971)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range length
- 5 to 8 mm
- 0.20 to 0.31 in
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Individuals will breed often and continuously over the duration of adulthood.
- Breeding season
- will start to breed as soon as temperatures increase beyond approximately 12°C (50°F).
- Range eggs per season
- 1642 to 3819
There is virtually no parental investment in this species aside from females depositing nutrients in eggs. Additionally, females may lay unfertilized eggs along with the fertilized eggs, ensuring a food source for the larvae upon hatching. Otherwise, larval individuals are independent, surviving on their own after hatching. (Koch, 2003; Osawa, 1993; Stathas, et al., 2001)
- Parental Investment
- Range lifespan
- 3 (high) years
- Range lifespan
- Typical lifespan
- 30 to 90 days
- Typical lifespan
Coccinellidae species show that the main cue for diapause occurs once daylight hours drop below approximately 10 to 13 hours per day. It is a mobile predator, moving through its environment seeking its prey, which reside on plants. This species is mainly active during the day, and often flies from plant to plant to find prey species. (Banks, 1957; Biddinger, et al., 2009; Colunga-Garcia, et al., 1997; Hagan, 1962; Osawa, 2000)is a solitary species, although they often congregate over winter to hibernate. While no studies have been done on this species specifically, studies on other
Communication and Perception
- Other Communication Modes
aphids and scale insects. They may also eat Thysanura species and mites. Butterfly and moth eggs may be eaten, as well. When other food sources are scarce, has been known to eat other various Coccinellidae species. Occasionally, it may feed on grapes and similar fruits. Studies have seen that in some cases, this species will eat other sources, such as moths and pollen, but these are isolated incidences. Both adults and larvae of will cannibalize eggs and smaller larvae. (Adriano, et al., 2009; Alhmedi, et al., 2010; Berkvens, et al., 2010; Burgio, et al., 2002; Campbell and Cone, 1999; Davidson and Evans, 2010; Dixon, 2005; Evans, 2003; Naoya, 2011; Osawa, 2000; Pervez, 2006; Sloggett, 2008)is a predatory insectivore with chewing mandibles, primarily feeding on
- Animal Foods
- terrestrial non-insect arthropods
- Plant Foods
Many species of bird prey on Podisus maculiventris is known to prey on , as well as many species of ants, including the red imported fire ant, Solanopsis invicta. Interspecies predation also occurs, though only when the other coccinellids are larger than the prey. Cannibalism on eggs and larvae is very prevalent among populations, with some studies showing up to 50% cannibalism of eggs.. The pentatomid,
To defend itself, (Firlej, et al., 2005; Gross, et al., 2010; Katsoyannos and Aliniazee, 1998; Koch, 2003; Nalepa and Weir, 2007; Nalepa, et al., 1996; Riddick, et al., 2009; Roy, et al., 2008; Saito and Bjørnson, 2008; Sloggett, et al., 2011)produces isopropyl methoxy pyrazine (IPMP), which it secretes from its tarsi when agitated. This is highly concentrated in the hemolymph and is used as a chemical defense mechanism. Further, this species has antimicrobial agents in its hemolymph that provide defense against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast. This species displays aposematism, as its red and black elytra can deter predators, acting as an apparent warning sign.
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Diptera (Strongygaster triangulifer) and Hymenoptera (Dinocampus coccinellae, Oomyzus scaposus, Homalotylus terminalis, Pachyneuron altiscuta). Mites of the genus Coccipolipus, protozoans (such as Microsporidia), nematodes, and fungal species (Hesperomyces virescens, Beauveria bassiana) may also use it as a host species.is a host species for a variety of parasites and parasitoids, specifically from the orders
Outside its native range, this species can create severe ecological pressures on indigenous Coccinellidae species as they out-compete and utilize resources efficiently. Some of the species most affected are Coccinella transversoguttata, Adalia bipunctata, and Coccinella novemnotata, although others have certainly experienced pressures, as well. They also prey on herbivorous pest species, which helps maintain plant species. (Banks, 1957; Gordon, 1985; Kindlmann, et al., 2011; Lombaert, et al., 2010; Sloggett, 2008)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
- controls pest population
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
- Negative Impacts
- bites or stings
- crop pest
has no special conservation status.
Dylan Graves (author), University of Michigan Biological Station, Angela Miner (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff, Brian Scholtens (editor), University of Michigan Biological Station.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
having coloration that serves a protective function for the animal, usually used to refer to animals with colors that warn predators of their toxicity. For example: animals with bright red or yellow coloration are often toxic or distasteful.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
a period of time when growth or development is suspended in insects and other invertebrates, it can usually only be ended the appropriate environmental stimulus.
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
an animal which has a substance capable of killing, injuring, or impairing other animals through its chemical action (for example, the skin of poison dart frogs).
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.
- scrub forest
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
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