- Aquatic Biomes
- lakes and ponds
- rivers and streams
- Average depth
- 2 m
- 6.56 ft
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range length
- 17 to 30 cm
- 6.69 to 11.81 in
- Average length
- 20 cm
- 7.87 in
Fertilized eggs attach to the underside of vegetation and take approximately a day to develop into fry. The larvae are free swimming in two days and stay in the floodplains for only a short time. When juveniles reach about 5 to 7 cm they migrate back through rivers to slower water where they spend the majority of their lives. (Christensen, 1992; Pethiyagoda, 1991)
Kissing gourami spawn once a year. Females initiate matings and only mate with one male per spawn. They do not seem to show any mate choice and do not keep the same mate for future spawnings. (Christensen, 1992; Pethiyagoda, 1991)
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- broadcast (group) spawning
- Breeding interval
- Kissing gourami breed once yearly
- Breeding season
- The breeding season is the beginning of the rainy season (May)
- Range number of offspring
- 900 to 1900
- Average number of offspring
- Range time to hatching
- 1 to 2 days
- Average time to hatching
- 1 days
- Average time to independence
- 3 days
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 3 to 5 years
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 3 to 5 years
- Parental Investment
- no parental involvement
- Typical lifespan
- 5 to 7 years
- Typical lifespan
- Typical lifespan
- 5 to 7 years
- Typical lifespan
is able to derive oxygen from water and air. It is able to get oxygen out of the air with paired suprabranchial chambers that have a bony element inside covered with a highly vascularized layer of tissue called the labyrinth apparatus. It gulps air at the surface and holds it in these chambers. It also expels air from its mouth while it is above water. Air breathing allows to survive in very oxygen-poor water.
The characteristic “kissing” behavior that gives the fish its name occurs frequently, especially during feeding and also sometimes during courtship and combat. It is caused by contraction of the epaxial muscles and the most commonly accepted explanation for the behavior is that it is a ritualized form of aggression. In general, kissing gourami are a relatively non-aggressive species. (Liem, 1967; Riehl and Baensch, 1991; Sakurai, et al., 1993; Skobe, et al., 1970)
There is no information on the home range of (Randle and Chapman, 2005).
Communication and Perception
Kissing gourami have very acute hearing due to a suprabranchial air-breathing chamber located close to the inner ear. The air bubbles in the suprabranchial chamber modulate and enhance their ability to hear. Kissing gourami frequently emit sounds that are associated with social behavior and this sound is achieved by grinding their pharyngeal teeth. (Ladich and Yan, 1998; Sakai, et al., 1995; Yan, 1998)
- Communication Channels
Kissing gourami are omnivorous. They feed on phytoplankton, zooplankton, and aquatic insects, supplemented by plant material. They are considered to be the most highly specialized freshwater filter-feeder of southeast Asia with very intricate gill rakers. (Liem, 1967; Rainboth, 1996; Roberts, 1989)
- Primary Diet
- Animal Foods
- Plant Foods
- Foraging Behavior
- Known Predators
- humans (Homo sapiens)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Kissing gourami are very popular aquarium fish, and are collected in their native habitat to sell and are also bred and sold out of Florida. They are popular fish in the aquarium trade in part because of their high tolerance to crowding. They are also an important food fish in Southeast Asia and are desirable because they can be kept alive for prolonged periods in markets. (Edwards, et al., 1997; Ng and Tan, 1997; Rainboth, 1996)
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known adverse affects of (Courtenay and Stauffer, 1991)on humans. Although there are many theoretically adverse affects that could be associated with their accidental release outside of their natural habitat, there have not been any well-documented cases.
Kissing gourami are not on the IUCN Red List, and although they are heavily fished in their natural habitat, they are still one of the most common fish in the area. (Christensen, 1992)
Allison Poor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
Megan Coughlin (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Kevin Wehrly (editor, instructor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
- external fertilization
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
a method of feeding where small food particles are filtered from the surrounding water by various mechanisms. Used mainly by aquatic invertebrates, especially plankton, but also by baleen whales.
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
- pet trade
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
photosynthetic or plant constituent of plankton; mainly unicellular algae. (Compare to zooplankton.)
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
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