The female Ottoe skipper will lay between 180 to 250 eggs in late June or July, singly on host grasses or forbs, which are suitable for the larvae to eat. The first larval stage will hatch after 12 to 13 days. Each female produces a single brood in their lifetime. (Selby, 2005)
Females provide provisioning in their eggs, as well as lay the eggs on a suitable host plant that the larvae can feed on after hatching. Adults provide no more parental care, most likely dying before their offspring hatch. (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2014; Selby, 2005)
Adult life expectancy of (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2014)is a few days to a week in the wild. The complete life cycle for an Ottoe skipper lasts approximately one year, including winter diapause.
Since adults of this species only live for a few days, their behavior is focused on finding a mate, reproducing, and ovipositing. Males will either "perch or search", meaning that they will either wait near host plants for receptive females or actively fly from host plant to host plant searching for them. When not searching for mates, they are foraging for food. They are active during the day. (Selby, 2005)
Ottoe skippers will live and breed in the same region they hatch in, and do not typically disperse. (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2014)
There is little information available about how (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2014)communicates with others and perceives the environment. It is also unclear how mates attract one another; it is likely pheromones and other chemicals are secreted. Males also loosely aggregate when searching for mates, which may be a visual clue for females.
Larvae feed primarily on small bunch grasses such as little bluestem, which are the most suitable for consumption and shelter building. Adult are nectar feeders and require an abundance of flowers to maintain a stable population. Nectar sources include milkweed, purple coneflowers, vetch, alfalfa, leadplant, compassplant, sunflower, and blazing star. When not in search of a mate, adults spend their time foraging. (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2014; Selby, 2005; Shepherd, 2005)
Ottoe skippers act as pollinators for the flowers which provide them with nectar. They also serve as prey to a variety of invertebrate predators, as well as birds. (Selby, 2005)
There are no known adverse effects ofon humans.
Courtney Hayes (author), Minnesota State University Mankato, Robert Sorensen (editor), Minnesota State University, Mankato, Angela Miner (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
a period of time when growth or development is suspended in insects and other invertebrates, it can usually only be ended the appropriate environmental stimulus.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats nectar from flowers
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
having more than one female as a mate at one time
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
Cuthrell, D. 2004. "Special animal abstract for http://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/abstracts/zoology/Hesperia_ottoe.pdf.(ottoe skipper)" (On-line). Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Accessed March 26, 2014 at
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2014. "http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/rsg/profile.html?action=elementDetail&selectedElement=IILEP65050." (On-line). Accessed March 15, 2014 at
Selby, G. 2005. Ottoe Skipper: a technical conservation assesment. Society for Conservation Biology: 1-36. Accessed March 25, 2014 at http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/ottoeskipper.pdf.
Shepherd, M. 2005. "The Xerxes Society for Invertebrate Conservation" (On-line). Species Profile: Hesperia ottoe. Accessed March 26, 2014 at http://www.xerces.org/ottoe-skipper/.
Swengel, A., S. Swengel. 2013. Decline of Insects, 4: 663-682.in Northern Tallgrass Prairie Reserves.