has been found throughout Southeast Asia, stretching south from Myanmar to Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the northern reaches of the island of Borneo. It is also found in south Vietnam, Sumatra, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Singapore.
It has been noted that the range ofmay be greater than reported, but this species shares a similar distribution with other members of the genus, which makes it difficult to discern the boundaries when the species are so morphologically similar. In addition, there have been many inconsistencies in the exact number of species and subspecies reported, and some of these conflicts have not yet been resolved. Thus, it is difficult to definitively outline the distribution of one species when there are differing reports of exactly what populations would be incuded in that species.
Red-cheeked flying squirrels have orange/brown pelage with brighter red/orange cheek and tail coloration. As members of the arrow-tailed flying squirrels, their tails resemble broad, flat arrow heads. The presence of a furred patagium, which is a convergent trait among many mammals, indicates the well developed gliding ability of. The patagium is a membrane formed by sheets of muscle that extends from the side of the body to the arms and legs. A rod of cartilage extends from the wrist to act as a spreader for the gliding membrane. Wing loading for the species is approximately 50 N/m2; an intermediate loading value within the tribe. As with all flying squirrels, large eyes are indicative of a nocturnal lifestyle. The hind foot is pentadactyl and the fore foot is tetradactyl.
Compared to other species in the genus Hylopetes, is more gracile, and on average, has a smaller skull than most of the other genus members. Average skull length is 35.58 mm and 34.58 mm for males and females, respectively. Average zygomatic breadth is 21.79 mm and 20.78mm, respectively. Well-developed postorbital processes are present, as is the case for most squirrels. The dental formula for this species is 1/1 0/0 1/1 3/3 for a total of 20 teeth. Molariform teeth are low-crowned and cuspidate. Sexual dimorphism is not pronounced, but males are on average, slightly larger in terms of their body measurements and mass. Mass for the species ranges from 50-80 grams.
Nothing is known about the mating systems of this species.
Reproductive data is known for H. lepidus, which is a closely related species that has previously been considered a subspecies of . The population structure of H. lepidus is adult biased, with only a per capita estimate of 0.6 young per adult female. Breeding does not appear to coincide with any environmental cues throughout the year and thus varies from year to year. As such, perdiodicity is irregular and superannual, and includes intervals of breeding inactivity of up to 17 months. Once reproductive activity begins within a population, it lasts for 6-7 months, and is highly synchronized among individuals.
The gestation period of H. lepidus is approximately 40 days, and between 1 and 4 young are produced, with an average of 2. Nothing is yet known about the duration of lactation for . (Mull and Liat, 1971)
Nothing is known about the parental investment of this species
Nothing is known about the lifespan or longevity of this species.
No data is available on home range for this species.
Vocalizations have not been documented in this species, as most individuals appear to be relatively silent. There is a strong emphasis on visual perception using large eyes, which coincides with the nocturnal lifestyle of flying squirrels. (Ahl, 1987; Nowak, 1991)also employs tactile perception by use of vibrissae. The ratio of vibrissae length to head length is higher for aerial squirrels than for terrestrial or arboreal squirrels.
The related species, Hylopetes alboniger, is shot for bushmeat by humans. Since this species shares much of the distribution of , it is likely that the red-cheeked flying squirrel is also killed by humans for meat. There is not much known about other predators of this species.
Flowering plants exploit the diet of H. spadiceus to aid in seed dispersal to novel locations (biotic vector). Capillaria hepatica (a parasitic nematode) and another unidentified nematode have been found in H. spadiceus, in addition to Eimeria hylopetis, an eimeriid protozoan. (Colley and Mullin, 1971; Dunn, et al., 1968; Nowak, 1991)
There are no known positive effects ofon humans.
Hylopetes spadiceus is not an endangered species, but it is suffering from habitat loss due to deforestation and habitat destruction. There are some protected zones within its distribution that were created in an effort to help prevent any potential threats to the species. (Duckworth and Hedges, 2008)
Riley Fache (author), University of Manitoba, Jane Waterman (editor), University of Manitoba, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
an animal that mainly eats leaves.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
an animal that mainly eats seeds
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
breeding takes place throughout the year
Ahl, A. 1987. Relationship of Vibrissal Length and Habits in the Sciuridae. Journal of Mammalogy, 68: 848-853. Accessed October 17, 2015 at http://www.jstor.org.uml.idm.oclc.org/stable/1381563?origin=crossref&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
Colley, F., W. Mullin. 1971. New Species of Eimeria (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) from Malaysian Squirrels. Journal of Protozoology, 18: 400-402. Accessed November 26, 2015 at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1550-7408.1971.tb03342.x/abstract.
Duckworth, J., S. Hedges. 2008. "Hylopetes spadiceus (Red-cheeked Flying Squirrel)" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed September 20, 2015 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/10607/0.
Dunn, F., B. Lim, L. Yap. 1968. Endoparasite Patterns in Mammals of the Malayan Rain Forest. Ecology, 49: 1179-1184. Accessed October 13, 2015 at http://www.jstor.org.uml.idm.oclc.org/stable/1934508?origin=crossref&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
Mull, I., L. Liat. 1971. New Locality Records for Some Mammals of West Malaysia. Journal of Mammalogy, 52: 430-437. Accessed October 17, 2015 at http://www.jstor.org.uml.idm.oclc.org/stable/1378686?origin=crossref&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
Mull, I., L. Liat. 1974. Reproductive Frequency in Malaysian Flying Squirrels, Hylopetes and Pteromyscus. Journal of Mammalogy, 55: 393-400. Accessed October 18, 2015 at http://www.jstor.org.uml.idm.oclc.org/stable/1379007?origin=crossref&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
Murali, K., C. Parimal, S. Kuladip, K. Awadhesh. 2013. "Observations on Particolored Flying Squirrel Hylopetes alboniger (Hodgson 1836) in Northeast India" (On-line pdf). Accessed October 13, 2015 at http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kuladip_Sarma/publication/256078833_Observations_on_Particolored_Flying_Squirrel_Hylopetes_alboniger_(Hodgson_1836)_in_Northeast_India/links/00b495217379fae0d9000000.pdf.
Nowak, R. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. New York, N.Y.: The John Hopkins University Press.
Osgood, W. 1934. Zoological Results of the Third De Schauensee Siamese Expidition, Part IV: Mammals. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 86: 311-315. Accessed October 22, 2015 at http://www.jstor.org.uml.idm.oclc.org/stable/4064151?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
Rasmussen, N., R. Thorington. 2008. Morphological Differentiation among Three Species of Flying Squirrels (Genus Hylopetes) from Southeast Asia. Journal of Mammalogy, 89: 1296-1305. Accessed October 13, 2015 at http://www.jstor.org.uml.idm.oclc.org/stable/25145220.
Song, L., Y. Fa-Hong. 2013. Differentiation in cranial variables among six species of Hylopetes (Sciurinae: Pteromyini). Zoological Research, 34: 109-119. Accessed November 10, 2015 at https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/64906/1/zr13084.pdf.
Thorington, R., K. Darrow, C. Anderson. 2011. Wing Tip Anatomy and Aerodynamics in Flying Squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy, 79: 245-250. Accessed October 13, 2015 at http://www.jstor.org.uml.idm.oclc.org/stable/1382860?origin=crossref&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
Thorington, R., L. Heaney. 1981. Body Proportions and Gliding Adaptations of Flying Squirrels (Petauristinae). Journal of Mammalogy, 62: 104-114. Accessed October 12, 2015 at http://www.jstor.org.uml.idm.oclc.org/stable/1380481?origin=crossref&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
Thorington, R., J. Koprowski, M. Steele, J. Whatton. 2012. Squirrels of the World. Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press.
Wells, K., M. Pfeiffer, M. Lakim, K. Linsenmair. 2004. Use of Arboreal and Terrestrial Space by a Small Mammal Community in a Tropical Rain Forest in Borneo, Malaysia. Journal of Biogeography, 31: 641-652. Accessed October 20, 2015 at http://www.jstor.org.uml.idm.oclc.org/stable/3554715?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
Wilson, D., D. Reeder. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third Edition, Volume 2. Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press.
Yu, F., X. Lian, Z. Li, M. Xie. 2014. A molecular phylogenetic study of Hylopetes (Rodentia: Sciuridae) inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. Biologia, 69: 1777-1783. Accessed October 17, 2015 at http://link.springer.com.uml.idm.oclc.org/article/10.2478%2Fs11756-014-0474-5.
van Peenan, J., P. Cunningham, M. Duncan. 1970. A Collection of Mammals from Con Son Island, Vietnam. Journal of Mammalogy, 51: 419-424. Accessed October 18, 2015 at http://www.jstor.org.uml.idm.oclc.org/stable/1378509?origin=crossref&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.