- Biogeographic Regions
- indian ocean
- atlantic ocean
- pacific ocean
- Other Geographic Terms
Females inhabit depths of 500 to 2,000 meters during the day and travel up to 250 meters or shallower at night. Most males stay between 1000 and 2000 meters at all times and do not migrate. The smallest larvae are found in great depths (probably where adults spawn), but transitional larvae live in subsurface (350 meters or shallower) areas and move to greater depths during or shortly after metamorphosis. (Coad, 1995; Whitehead, 1984)
- Aquatic Biomes
- Range depth
- 2000 to surface m
- 6561.68 to ft
Adultfemales range from 19 to 48.9 cm. Adult males are strikingly different from females (described below) and are between 3 and 7 cm in length (Gibbs, 1964).
has a long and sleek body that is 20 to 50 times longer than it is deep. The dorsal fin is also very long, extending along the posterior two-thirds of the length of the body, and with 54 to 80 rays. The anal fin is about half as long as the dorsal fin and contains 29 to 49 rays. Both the dorsal and the anal fins extend almost until the caudal fin. Both fins also have pairs of short, bony spines that border each ray. There are no adipose or pectoral fins, but pectoral fins are present in larvae. The pelvic fins (in females only) have 6 rays and are usually found closer to the head than the caudal fin.
The skin is black or very dark brown and without scales or markings in females. Males are described as dark brown and larvae are clear with rows of pigment marks (Gibbs, 1964). The post-orbital organ is pinkish.
The head ofhas a round snout, and proportionally small eyes (larger in males). The mouth is large and at an oblique angle and with premaxilla bones that are not protractible. Nostrils are located closer to the eye than to the mouth (Gibbs, 1964). Females have teeth in the jaws that are long, barbed and fang-like, vary in size and are depressible. The gill arches do not have rakers or teeth.
There is no lateral line present, buthas two rows of photophores on both sides that extend along the ventral part of the body. Luminous material also flanks each dorsal and fin ray and is usually yellowish in color (Gibbs, 1964). There is also a post-orbital luminous organ, but no pre- or sub-orbital luminous organs (Nakamura, 1986).
There is a chin or hyoid barbel present in females that is about two and a half times the length of the head, (absent in males). This chin barbel has two forms: one with a bulblet on the end and one without.
Males are quite different from females as are adults from larvae. Although males are generally a similar overall shape as females, they do not exceed 7 cm in length. They lack teeth, chin barbells and pelvic fins. Their post-orbital organs are proportionally larger than in females, extending from slightly longer than the diameter of the eye to up to twice the diameter of the eye. Males also have a small extension (sperm duct) of flesh that originates near the anus and attaches to the modified first anal ray. (; Gibbs, 1964; Nakamura, 1986; Whitehead, 1984)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- female larger
- sexes colored or patterned differently
- Range length
- 1.6 to 48.9 cm
- 0.63 to 19.25 in
goes through a remarkable metamorphosis from larva, postlarva, adolescent, transitional adolescent to adult. One common name for is the deep-sea stalkeye fish, which refers to the larval state. The larvae, which are long and slender and 1.6 to 2.8 cm in length, have eyes on the ends of proportionally very long, cartilaginous stalks that are up to 25% of the total body length. The eyestalks apparently allow for an increased range of vision (Weihs and Moser, 1981). The larvae do not have photophores and are clear except for a row of color spots. The head is long with no operculum and has a flat duck-like snout. The larvae have relatively large, paddle-like pectoral fins and no pelvic fins. The end of the intestine extends outside of the body and slightly beyond the caudal fin. In this early stage of development, the larvae are sexually indeterminate (Gibbs, 1964).
In the postlarval stage, 3.5 to 5.0 cm,begins to show adult and sexually dimorphic characteristics. The eyestalks begin to shorten and the cartilaginous rods coil up behind the eye. The head and snout begin to enlarge and the chin barbel and pelvic fins begin to grow in females.
In the adolescent stages, the skin darkens, eyestalks disappear, and the operculum grows to cover the gill openings. The intestine no longer extends beyond the caudal fin. In females, rapid growth occurs (can quadruple their length), teeth grow, and the chin barbel grows to the complete shape.
Males do not grow much in the adolescent stages and overall males retain some larval appearance in adult stage. But males do darken in these stages, the post-orbital organs grow as large or larger than the eye and the sperm duct grows out to the first anal ray. (Gibbs, 1964; Kawaguchi and Moser, 1983; Nelson, 1994; Weihs and Moser, 1981; Whitehead, 1984)
- Development - Life Cycle
is an oviparous species with external fertilization. Males have very large testes that take up most of their body cavity. There is a sperm duct that extend from the testes to the exterior of the body where it runs along and fuses with the first anal fin ray. This structure may be involved with the delivery of sperm, but the mobility of the structure is limited because it is fused with the ray (Gibbs, 1964).
Females have been found with ovaries that contain 14,000 mature eggs as well as many undeveloped eggs.
There is little information available on the mating behaviors of (; Gibbs, 1964).
A rise in the collection of adult and immature females, as well as larvae, in the months of August and September suggest that this could be a breeding season. However, other collection data shows an even distribution of small specimens throughout the year, suggesting year-round breeding (Gibbs, 1964).
Collection results show larger specimens from greater depths, suggesting that adults may return to deeper waters for spawning. This is also where the smallest larvae are found. Little information is available on the reproductive behavior of (Coad, 1995; Gibbs, 1964).
- Key Reproductive Features
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding season
- There is some evidence that August and September are a breeding season, and other evidence that support year-round breeding.
There is no known information on the parental investment of.
Because adult males have a very diminished digestive tract, it is likely that their adult lifespan is quite short, possibly as short as a few weeks. Through collection numbers, it seems that females spend more time in the immature stages. Although they don’t seem to spend much time as mature adults, they probably live more than one year (Gibbs, 1964). (Gibbs, 1964)
- Typical lifespan
- 1 (low) years
- Typical lifespan
- Average lifespan
- >1 years
- Average lifespan
Schooling behavior is inferred from collection results. Larvae are often found together, suggesting that they school. Adults have been found in groups of 2 to 7, but it is not clear is this is a result of schooling behavior (Gibbs, 1964). (Gibbs, 1964)
Communication and Perception
- Other Communication Modes
The food habits of Diaphus was found in an adult specimen (Gibbs, 1964). Remains of diatoms and small crustaceans have been found in postlarvae. Adult males lack a functional digestive track and diet (Coad, 1995). (Coad, 1995; Gibbs, 1964; Whitehead, 1984; Coad, 1995; Gibbs, 1964; Whitehead, 1984; Coad, 1995; Gibbs, 1964; Whitehead, 1984)are described in several sources as poorly known, but adults are known to eat mid-water fishes. A myctophid or lanternfish, from the genus
- Animal Foods
- aquatic crustaceans
There is little information available on the predators of Hyperglyphe antarctica or Hyperglyphe porosa in 1978. (Scott, 1979). However, a specimen of measuring 15.5 cm was found off the coast of Tasmania in the stomach of a deep-sea trevella or
- Known Predators
- bream (Hyperoglyphe antarctica)
There is little information available on role (; Fink, 1985)plays in ecosystems. However, because it is common in deep, temperate oceans, it seems to be an important part of these ecosystems.
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There are no known positive effects ofon humans, but it is a fish that is apparently of great interest to some ichthyologists and students of biology.
- Positive Impacts
- research and education
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known negative effects ofon humans.
is not listed as a threatened or endangered species on the IUCN, U.S. Federal List or CITES databases.
was first described and named by Peters in 1876/1877.
Common names forinclude ribbon sawtailfish, black dragonfish and deepsea stalkeyefish.
The species Idiacanthus have gone through some classification changes over time. The remarkable stalkeye larvae of were originally described as a separate species (Scott, 1979). Gibbs states that Idiacanthus is very closely related to Melanostomiatidae because they have nearly identical teeth structures. Idiacanthus is now considered the sister group to Tactostoma (Fink, 1983). The distinguishing characteristics of are the extraordinary larval metamorphosis, very distinct sexual dimorphism, and pairs of spines that accompany the base of each dorsal and anal ray (Gibbs, 1964).and genus
Many of the stomiatoid fishes have unique lower jaw barbels, although the function of this tissue is not clear. The chin or hyoid barbel found in females has been found to contain luminous cells (similar to those found in the photophores) near the end of the barbel. The end barbel also contains well-developed muscles, nerves and blood vessels (Hansen, 1970). (; Coad, 1995; Fink, 1983; Gibbs, 1964; Hansen, 1970; Coad, 1995; Fink, 1983; Gibbs, 1964; Hansen, 1970; Scott, 1979)
Anne Roecklein (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, William Fink (editor, instructor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
Matthew Wund (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
- Atlantic Ocean
the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean.
Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.
- Pacific Ocean
body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having a worldwide distribution. Found on all continents (except maybe Antarctica) and in all biogeographic provinces; or in all the major oceans (Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific.
- external fertilization
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
An aquatic biome consisting of the open ocean, far from land, does not include sea bottom (benthic zone).
generates and uses light to communicate
an animal that mainly eats fish
"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.
- saltwater or marine
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
- sexual ornamentation
one of the sexes (usually males) has special physical structures used in courting the other sex or fighting the same sex. For example: antlers, elongated tails, special spurs.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
Coad, B. 1995. Encyclopedia of Canadian Fishes. Waterdown, Ontario: Canadian Museum of Nature and Canadian Sportfishing Production, Inc..
Fink, W. 1983. Stomiiformes: relationships. Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes, 1: 181-184.
Fink, W. 1985. Phylogenetic Interrelationships of the Stomiid Fishes (Teleostei: Stomiiformes). Ann Arbor: Museum of Zoology, The University of Michigan.
Gibbs, R. 1964. Family Idiacanthidae. Pp. 512-521 in J Tee-Van, ed. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. New Haven: Yale University.
Hansen, K. 1970. On the luminous organs in the barbels of some Stomiatoid fishes. Meddr Dansk Naturh, 133: 69-84.
Kawaguchi, K., H. Moser. 1983. Stomiatoidea development. Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes, 133: 169-181.
Krueger, W. 1990. Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic. Paris: Unesco. Accessed October 14, 2004 at http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/SpeciesSummary.cfm?ID=11828&genusname=Idiacanthus&speciesname=fasciola.
Nakamura, I. 1986. Important Fishes Trawled off Patagonia. Japan: Japan Marine Fishery Resource Center.
Nelson, J. 1994. Fishes of the World. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
Scott, E. 1979. Observations on some Tasmanian fishes : Part XXV. The Royal Society of Tasmania, 113: 99-105.
Weihs, D., H. Moser. 1981. Stalked eyes as an adaptation towards more efficient foraging in marine fish larvae. Bulletin of Marine Science, 31: 31-36.
Whitehead, P. 1984. Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Paris: Unesco.