The primary habitat of gopher frogs is native xeric upland habitats, comprised mainly of longleaf pine and sandy substrates. The habitat also contains xeric to mesic hardwoods such as sand pine scrub, longleaf pine flatwoods, and xeric hammocks. These habitats in early successional stages are ideal. Gopher frogs seek shelter in underground refuges, such as the burrows of gopher tortoises, after which they were names, and several species of small mammals, such as rodents, as well as under logs and in stump holes. Gopher frogs also use clumps of grass and leaf litter as refuge during its migration. Refuges protect against adverse weather and predation. Newly metamorphosed gopher frogs are at a high risk of predation and desiccation due to their unfamiliarity with refuge habitat. Fire-maintained habitats with open canopy contain a higher density of gopher tortoise and small mammal burrows. Thus, juvenile gopher frogs avoid closed-canopy habitat and select open-canopy habitat that has been maintained by fire. As a result of fire suppression, habitat loss and degradation, many wildlife species including the gopher frog associated with longleaf pine forests have declined. Gopher frogs breed in temporary or semipermanent (seasonally flooded) ponds but spend the majority of their lives in the burrows of surrounding terrestrial habitat. (Denton and BeeBee, 1993; Gentry and Smith, 1968; Godley, 1992; Lee, 1968; Palis, et al., 2010; Roznik and Johnson, 2009a; Seebacher and Alford, 2002; Thorson, 1955; Wright and Wright, 1949)
Gopher frogs have robust, stocky bodies with relatively short forelimbs. They have tapered snouts and a single lateral ridge down each side of the back. Their light-colored body is marked with dark brown or black blotches of various sizes and shapes. Adult snout-vent length ranges from 6 to 9 cm and weight ranges from 47 to 151 g. Adult males are smaller than adult females. Skin texture can ranges from rough to smooth and the color ranges from yellow-white to brown or gray. The venter is often white, cream, or yellow and usually mottled with dark spots. Tadpoles range from yellow-green to olive-green or gray with large black spots on the upper body, tail and fin. Tadpoles typically reach a length of 84 mm; however, in North Carolina tadpoles can exceed 90 mm in length. (Conant and Collins, 1991; Palis, 1998; Palis, et al., 2010; Roznik and Johnson, 2009b)
Little is known of development of gopher frogs. Egg masses are laid in semiperminant ponds just below the surface of the water. Tadpoles metamorphose after 87 to 225 days and disperse into drier upland habitat. (Semlitsch, et al., 1995)
Gopher frogs are polygynous and breed from January to April, immediately after a heavy rain. Males actively call to potential mates during this time. Males occupy breeding ponds for about a month while females stay less than a week. (Palis, 1998; Palis, et al., 2010)
Breeding generally occurs during winter and early spring from January through April. Reproduction can occur as early as September and October following heavy rains. Breeding sites are seasonally flooded isolated ponds free of predatory fish. Males usually occupy breeding ponds for about a month while the females stay less than a week. Females lay cluster containing thousands of eggs. Eggs are gray to gray-black and range in size from 1.67 to 2.7 mm in diameter. Evidence suggests that each female lays one egg mass per breeding season. She deposits the egg mass near the surface of the water on a rigid support (e.g., semi-submerged shrub) in order to keep the eggs at a desired depth. As surface waters warm, development of embryos progresses. Tadpoles metamorphose after a larval period ranging from 87 to 225 days, and disperse into the drier uplands. (Bailey, 1991; Brodman, 1995; Gregoire and Gunzburger, 2008; Jensen, et al., 1995; Palis, 1998; Palis, et al., 2010; Semlitsch, 2008; Semlitsch, et al., 1995; Volpe, 1958; Wright and Wright, 1933)
Gopher frogs can live for up to 6 years in the wild and 7 years in captivity. (Bailey, 1991)
Gopher frogs live in hot, dry areas; as a result, desiccation is a major concern. Thus, gopher frogs spend considerable time underground to prevent drying as well as for protection from predation and adverse weather. Evidence suggests that if gopher frogs find refuge within their first 8 days of life, risk of mortality is only 4% for the first few weeks of life. Gopher frogs travel up to 691 m from its natal pond and travel up to 2 km to breeding ponds to find open habitat. Since this distance is substantial for an animal of its size, it commonly takes temporary refuge in tortoise burrows along the way. Movement normally coincides with high amounts of rain during breeding season. Gopher frogs are nocturnal, and although they may leave the burrow to forage, they often remain near the burrow entrance to quickly jump back into the burrow if threatened. (Bailey, 1991; Franz, et al., 1998; Gregoire and Gunzburger, 2008; Jensen, et al., 2003; Palis, et al., 2010; Roznik and Johnson, 2009a)
There is no information available about the home range of gopher frogs.
The call of gopher frogs is often described as a deep, throaty “snore”, which can last up to two seconds and can be heard nearly 0.4 km away. They have also been documented calling while submerged. Their calls can be heard throughout the year, especially after heavy rains, but are much more abundant during breeding season. (Jensen, et al., 1995; Palis, et al., 2010; Wright and Wright, 1933)
Gopher frogs are carnivorous and are known to consume a variety of invertebrates, including earthworms, cockroaches, spiders, grasshoppers, beetles as well as other toads and frogs. They travel significant distance at night to forage. Tadpoles eat microscopic algae, organic debris, bacteria and protozoans found on underwater vegetation or along the pond bottom. Water quality and lack of canopy cover have a significant impact on prey abundance. (Palis, et al., 2010; Wright and Wright, 1949)
Caddisfly larvae are significant predator on gopher frog egg masses, however, dragonfly nymphs, diving beetles and turtles also prey on egg masses. Occasionally, snakes have been documented at breeding sites. Gopher frogs breed in seasonally flooded ponds absent of predatory fish. Transitioning from aquatic habitat as tadpoles to the terrestrial habitat as juveniles results in high mortality. Juveniles are unfamiliar with their new habitat and the location of burrows, making them easy targets for predation. Approximately 5% of fertilized eggs develop into juveniles. Gopher frogs use burrows to escape potential predators and their camouflaged coloration likely helps reduce predation risk. (Gregoire and Gunzburger, 2008; Palis, et al., 2010; Richter, 2000; Roznik and Johnson, 2009a)
Both as larvae and adults, gopher frogs are preyed upon by a number of vertebrate and invertebrate predators. In general, amphibians are often used as biological indicators of habitat quality. (Richter, 2000)
Gopher frogs, and amphibians in general, are often used as biological indicators of habitat quality. Biological indicators are species that are sensitive to environmental change such as pollution or climate change. Because of their permeable skin they are susceptible to environmental stress in both aquatic and terrestrial environments and serve as an early warning to conservationists of poor aquatic habitat conditions.
There no known adverse effects of gopher frogs on humans.
Because of declining populations, Mississippi gopher frogs, a subspecies of , is listed as endangered on the U.S. Federal List. Major threats include fire suppression, habitat loss and fragmentation from roads and construction, agriculture and off-road vehicles. Gopher tortoise populations are also declining, leaving fewer burrows for to use. In general, the area occupied by this species is rather small and is very specific, leaving highly vulnerable to habitat change. Although precise numbers are difficult to estimate, recent population estimates suggest that less 10,000 individuals remain in the wild, which is significantly reduced from historical numbers. (Palis, et al., 2010)is listed as “near threatened” on the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species.
Rachel Sines (author), Northern Michigan University, Mary Martin (editor), Northern Michigan University, John Berini (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff, Catherine Kent (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
photosynthetic or plant constituent of plankton; mainly unicellular algae. (Compare to zooplankton.)
having more than one female as a mate at one time
specialized for leaping or bounding locomotion; jumps or hops.
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
uses sight to communicate
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