Salticidae. The immense diversity within this family rivals that of birds (Girarb and Endler, 2014). Salticidae is made up of 592 genera and about 5,615 described species. Many species remain undiscovered and unnamed within the family (Marfil et al., 2014). Relationships between species in are not well understood. Evidence based on morphology suggests that this genus has about 59 different species, with more that have yet to be discovered (Girarb and Endler, 2014). (Girarb and Endler, 2014; Marfil, et al., 2014), also known as the peacock spider, is a genus of jumping spiders found within the family
Species in the genus (Girarb and Endler, 2014)are found in the southern-half of the Australian continent. Several species are geographically restricted to particular niches while others have wide distributions (Girarb and Endler, 2014).
Species in Eucalyptus woodlands (Girarb and Endler, 2014). Peacock spiders are mostly active during their respective breeding seasons which differ based on the gender of the spider. They do not spin webs or create nests, instead they are constantly moving and hunting (Arnold, 2015) making them active outside of their breeding seasons as well. Pregnant females create nests underground in-order to lay and guard their egg sacs until they hatch. The eggs hatch at different times based on gender. Males hatch in August and can survive through December. Females emerge from the nests later and tend to survive later than the males. Periods of activity often differ due to living in many different habitats. (Girarb and Endler, 2014). (Arnold, 2015; Girarb and Endler, 2014)are found in a variety of habitats, ranging from semi-arid to temperate coastal areas. Some species inhabit only one kind of habitat while others occupy a wide variety of habitats, including sand dunes, grasslands, heaths, and in leaf-litter under
Currently, peacock spiders are assigned to two genera, Saratus. Saratus is made up of a single species and is a variety of at least 59 described species. However, some species still have a status that is unresolved due to a lack of defining characters. The species that have been described have been placed within 11 clades based defining characteristics of those genera. These clades include; Anomalus, Calcitrans, Chrysomelas, Fimbriatus, Harrisi, Mungaich, Pavonis, Spicatus, Tasmanicus, Velutinus, and Volans (Otto and Hill, 2017). g.Maratus splendens changed to g.Maratus rainbowi following the introduction of patronyms in 2011 by Otto & Hill. It is more common to see the original name, g.Maratus splendens in published works when discussing species within this genus, however g.Maratus rainbowi is used in some online catalogs (Sarefo, 2018). (Otto and Hill, 2017; Sarefo, 2018)and
Little research has been down studying the parental investment of (Girarb and Endler, 2014)spiders when raising their young. Females will hide away after courtship and lay her eggs in a place in which she can guard them. (Girarb and Endler, 2014).
The only recorded information about interactive behaviors between (Nieuwenhuys and Otto, Jurgen Otto/2017)and other spiders is for mating purposes. Otherwise, the genus is considered solitary. (Nieuwenhuys and Otto, Jurgen Otto/2017).
Communication only occurs between males and females at the time of mating and resonates through vibrations or releases of airborne chemical pheromones. (Girarb and Endler, 2014)males use their abdomens and their third pair of legs to produce vibrations through the ground. Vibrations can then be detected by the female through sensory systems in their legs. Chemical pheromones, produced in the females abdomen, are used to produce silk drag-lines as they move about their environment (Girarb and Endler, 2014). Once the male comes into contact with these silk lines the pheromones can be detected by chemoreceptors, located on the legs. This triggers male courtship in the absence of their normal visual cues. This method of communication is more commonly used by the males to determine if the female is ready to mate. spiders have eight eyes that aids in the ability to perceive motion and depth. Their eyes are equipped with telephoto lens and tiered retinas containing UV-sensitive photoreceptors which they use to perceive motion. Their tiered retinas allows for their eyes to perceive colors in a way that is more similar to the way that birds perceive color (Girarb and Endler, 2014).
The ecosystem roles that (DeMarino, 2017)spiders provide are similar to the role that all spiders provide in that they help regulate insect populations through consumption (DeMarino, 2017).
With the given information that is known about Maratus spiders there is no evidence of negative economic issues towards humans. This may be due to their small size or that they are not poisonous to humans. (Horowitz, 2015)
Peacock spiders were first discovered in the 1800’s but they went virtually unstudied after the 1950’s. They have slowly gained popularity thanks to their unique colorizations and dances. This popularity is evident within some of the newer species names, such as, Skeletorus (Maratus sceletus), Sparklemuffin (Maratus jactatus), and Elephans (Maratus elephans), all of which being based off of the patterns on their abdomens (Arnold, 2015). (Arnold, 2015)
Abigail Short (author), Colorado State University.
Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
having more than one female as a mate at one time
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
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