- Other Geographic Terms
- island endemic
- Other Habitat Features
- Range elevation
- 0 to 2,700 m
- 0.00 to ft
coat that contains a dark mid-dorsal stripe. Fur continues down the rump, covering the top of the tail. The remainder of the tail is covered in small bumpy growths that increase friction for gripping. Phalanger gymotis has little to no fur on the ears. The lack of fur on the ears and the dark dorsal stripe distinguish from other members of its parent genus, Phalanger. At higher altitudes, tail fur is more dense and may have a white tip. Similar to other members of Phalanger, has five digits on each foot, including a single opposable digit on the hind feet. The opposable digit is the only digit lacking a claw. Ground cuscuses vary in mass from 1,500 g to 4,850 g and in length from 310 mm to 539 mm. Tail length makes up a significant portion of its body length and ranges from 290 mm to 335 mm. Individuals in the northernmost part of its range tend to be larger, while individuals at higher altitudes are smaller than those a lower altitude. (Feiler, 1978; Flannery, 1995; Flannery, 2004; George, 1987; McNab, 2008)has a short, coarse, grey-brown or silver-grey
The skulls of P. gymnotis gymnotis and P. gymnotis leucippus, which are differentiated by the wider palate and broader nasals of P. gymnotis gymnotis. The basal metabolic rate of is 518.2 cm^3 oxygen/hour. Sexual dimorphism has not been reported in this species. (Feiler, 1978)feature a powerful zygomatic arch and prominent sagittal crest, a narrow rostrum, and short paroccipital processes. is further divided into two subspecies,
- Range mass
- 1,500.0 to 4,850.0 g
- to oz
- Range length
- 310.0 to 539.0 mm
- 12.20 to 21.22 in
- Average basal metabolic rate
- 518.2 cm3.O2/g/hr
Little is known about breeding in (Shoemaker and Croxton, 1982)in the wild. In captive populations, males court females by chasing and biting prospective mates when they are in estrus. Chasing may occur during daylight hours, but is most common at night, as is nocturnal. Although the mating system is unknown, it is either polygynous or polygynandrous, as males have been noted mating with at least two different females.
- Key Reproductive Features
- year-round breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- delayed implantation
- Breeding season
- breed year round
- Range number of offspring
- 1 (low)
- Average gestation period
- 13 days
- Range time to independence
- 5 to 7 months
Young are altricial and remain in the mother's pouch, not leaving permanently until the age of 5-7 months. The mother provides milk, but time to weaning is unknown. Young exit the pouch first at night, at approximately 3 months old. The young do not exit during the day to sleep alone until the age of 4 to 5 months. (Flannery, 1995; Shoemaker and Croxton, 1982)
- Range lifespan
- 15 (high) years
- Range lifespan
Outside of mating season, P. gymotis is an accomplished climber and can easily traverse forest habitats. is almost entirely nocturnal, however, some individuals have been seen outside their dens during the early morning. ("Ground Cuscus", 2004; Flannery, 1995; Shoemaker and Croxton, 1982; Wilson and Reeder, 2005)is solitary and asocial, and individuals are often aggressive toward conspecifics. Fighting is common and includes hissing, honking, foot thumping and striking opponents with the forelimbs. constructs terrestrial dens and forages in the mid to lower canopy at night. It generally remains on low, stable branches while foraging. Using a flexible, gripping tail and opposable hind thumbs,
There is no information available regarding the home range of.
Communication and Perception
Elaeocarpus, Ficus, Pipturus, Pandanus, Oenathe, Rungia, and Ficus odoardii. Fruit is collected from trees and from the ground. Female ground cuscuses have been observed filling their pouches with fruit and then returning to their home dens where it is stored. (Flannery, 1995; Ganslosser and Etter-Ganslosser, 1990; Hume, et al., 1997; Mack and Wright, 2005; Wilson and Reeder, 2005)is primarily frugivorous, but also consumes eggs, seeds, and leaves. It forages on the fruit and leaves of plants from numerous genera, including
- Animal Foods
- Plant Foods
- seeds, grains, and nuts
- Foraging Behavior
- stores or caches food
- Ecosystem Impact
- disperses seeds
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
- Negative Impacts
- crop pest
Colleen Macke (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Berini (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
- delayed implantation
in mammals, a condition in which a fertilized egg reaches the uterus but delays its implantation in the uterine lining, sometimes for several months.
a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
- island endemic
animals that live only on an island or set of islands.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
- pet trade
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
- scent marks
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
- stores or caches food
places a food item in a special place to be eaten later. Also called "hoarding"
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
- year-round breeding
breeding takes place throughout the year
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