Originally identified by O. Thomas in 1905,, commonly known as Campbell’s hamsters or Djungarian hamsters, is a native inhabitant of the steppes and deserts of inner Mongolia and northeastern China.
Heavily inhabited areas of Mongolia include, but are not limited to; the Altai Mountains, Transbaikalia, Nei Mongol, and Tuvinskaya (Tuva) Autonomous Region. Bordering territories in northern China, the Heilungkiang and Hebei provinces more specifically, also maintain dense populations of (Thomas, 1905).
Cricetinae, creates and dwells within a system of subterranean tunnels. The burrow of a Campbell’s hamster is usually composed of four to six main tunnels, with both horizontal and vertical orientation. A nest is often constructed at the end of a tunnel and comprised of dry and insulating materials including but not limited to; grasses, feathers and wool. Seeds and nuts are, more often than none, cached in extremely close proximity to the nesting area., like fellow members of the subfamily
Additionally, several region-dependant variations in Ochotona dauria and Ochotona mantchuria. Moreover, residing on the Mongolian Plateau do not dig their own burrows, but instead share the burrows of several species of Meriones, more commonly known as jirds or gerbils. (Allen, 1938)habitat preference have been documented. In the Barga and Great Kingan Regions of Manchuria, Campbell’s hamsters are known to share tunnels and burrows with several species of pikas,
- Range depth
- 1 (high) m
- 3.28 (high) ft
- Average depth
- .0025-.0030 m
Phodopus sungorus, Siberian hamsters. However, there are several physical characteristics that distinguish the two species. The ears of are generally smaller than those of Phodopus sungorus. The mid-dorsal stripe of the Campbell’s hamster is both thin and defined and the area where the dorsal fur meets the ventral fur is a creamy light yellow. Moreover, the underfur of is dark grey, whereas that of Phodopus sungorus is white. (Allen, 1938; Hollister, 1912)is often confused with
Documentations of region-dependant color variations have been collected from several populations of (Hollister, 1912)native to the Chuisaya Steppes. Campbell’s hamsters from this area are slightly greyer in color and possess a shorter mid-dorsal stripe.
- Sexual Dimorphism
- male larger
- Average mass
- 23.4 g
- 0.82 oz
- Range length
- 80 to 103 mm
- 3.15 to 4.06 in
- Average length
- 102 mm
- 4.02 in
- Range basal metabolic rate
- 1.63 +/- 0.38 to 1.88 +/- 0.57 cm3.O2/g/hr
These hamsters are promiscuous.
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
Wild (Ross, 1995)breed 3-5 times per year, whereas captive breed year-round. The breeding of the Campbell’s hamster varies by geographic location. Breeding begins in April and May, in the Tuva and Transbaikalia regions of Mongolia, respectively, and ends in late September or early October.
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- post-partum estrous
- Breeding interval
- Wild Phodopus campbelli breed 3-5 times per year, whereas captive Phodopus campbelli breed year-round.
- Breeding season
- The breeding of the Campbell’s hamster varies by geographic location. Breeding begins in April and May, in the Tuva and Transbaikalia regions of Mongolia, respectively, and ends in late September or early October.
- Range number of offspring
- 1 to 12
- Average number of offspring
- Range gestation period
- 13.5 to 22 days
- Average gestation period
- 17.5 days
- Average weaning age
- 17 days
- Average time to independence
- 23 days
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 48 days
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 23 days
- Parental Investment
Minimal documentation exists regarding the lifespan of wild. However, captive have been extensively studied in various laboratory settings and their average lifespan ranges anywhere from 1.5 - 3 years.
- Typical lifespan
- 2 to 2.5 years
- Typical lifespan
Cricetinae, are nocturnal. But captive specimens exhibit sporadic adherence to the cyclical sleep and wake patterns of wild specimens.is generally classified as a solitary species. However, in captivity, exhibits a high tolerance for other species members when sharing territory. Campbell’s hamsters, like other members of the subfamily
- Average territory size
- 3.5 km^2
Aside from burrow dimensions, very few documented accounts investigate the overall territory size of (Wynne-Edwards, et al., 1992). However, in 1992 a survey of the home ranges of several female Campbell's hamsters was conducted in the Lake Tere Xol region of Mongolia.
Communication and Perception
- Communication Channels
- Other Communication Modes
- scent marks
The diet of wild (Ross, 1995)is primarily composed of a wide variety of seeds, nuts and vegetation, including Stipa capillata, Iris ruthenia and Iris flavisima. Additionally, the diet may be supplemented with small invertebrates and insects.
Captivewill welcome almost any commercially prepared hamster food, traditionally composed of an extensive assortment of corn, oats, sunflower, peanuts, dried fruits and dehydrated vegetables. The latter diet is often supplemented with alfalfa and minerals or salts.
- Animal Foods
- terrestrial non-insect arthropods
- Plant Foods
- wood, bark, or stems
- seeds, grains, and nuts
- Foraging Behavior
- stores or caches food
Known predators of tsaker falcon this species are corsac foxes (Vulpes corsac), eagle owls (Bubo bubo), steppe eagles (Aquila nipalensis), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and saker falcons (Falco cherrug).
- Ecosystem Impact
- disperses seeds
- Ochotona dauria
- Ochotona mantchuria
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Phodopus roborovskii (desert hamsters) and Phodopus sungorus (Dzhungarian or Siberian hamsters) were collectively introduced to the American pet industry as “dwarf hamsters” in the mid-1990s. The small size, mild temperament and inexpensive maintenance of make it both a novel pet for first-time pet owners and a particularly ideal pet for young children. Moreover, unlike larger species of the subfamily Cricetinae, will contentedly cohabitate with one another.,
The same characteristics that make the Campbell’s hamster an attractive pet also make it an ideal animal model for scientific study. (Pogosianz, 1975)has been utilized in numerous cytogenetic and cancer investigations.
- Positive Impacts
- pet trade
- research and education
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Because the natural habitat ofis large, undeveloped expanses of desert, steppe and mountain terrain, the Campbell’s hamster is not responsible for any documented significant negative economic impact.
are inquisitive by nature, and individuals kept as pets have been known to nip humans when startled. However, the bite is primarily a reaction mechanism and nips rarely extend beyond the outermost, dermal, layer of tissue.
- Negative Impacts
- bites or stings
The natural habitat ofis an extremely dry, harsh and undeveloped environment. The Campbell’s hamster is not considered an endangered species and probably does not face extinction anytime in the near future.
Matthew Wund (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
Nora Cothran (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor, instructor), Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
- desert or dunes
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
an animal that mainly eats leaves.
Referring to a burrowing life-style or behavior, specialized for digging or burrowing.
an animal that mainly eats seeds
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
- pet trade
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
- scent marks
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
- stores or caches food
places a food item in a special place to be eaten later. Also called "hoarding"
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
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