Saola prefer broadleaf evergreen forests that are in the wet lowland Annamite Mountains of Laos PDR and Vietnam, including marshes and swamps. They are found at elevations between 400 and 750 m. The habitat has long rainy seasons with high average annual rainfall (Hardcastle, et al., 2004; Kemp, et al., 1997)
- Range elevation
- 400 to 750 m
- 1312.34 to 2460.63 ft
Saloa are large animals, measuring around 150 cm and weighing in between 80 and 100 kg. Although not reported for soala, sexual dimorphism is common in bovids, and may occur in this species.
Both males and female saola have horns that are probably used for protection against predators. The common name, saola, means "spinning wheel posts" in the local language. This name was probably given to the species because of the way the horns resemble tapered posts of a spinning wheel.
These animals have brown noses. The pelage consists of different shades of brown. Some have white patches on the side of neck. A black stripe extends from the shoulders to the lower back. The underside of is a lighter shade of brown than the upper body. The tail is striped, with brown, black, and cream colors. The rump is marked by a cream colored band which extends horizontally from the top of one hind leg to the other. White bands encircle the lower leg, just above the hooves. The face has white patches that conceal small dermal nodules that may be scent glands. Saola have possibly the largest maxillary glands of any living mammal. (Dung, et al., 1993; Hardcastle, et al., 2004)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range mass
- 80 to 100 kg
- 176.21 to 220.26 lb
- Average length
- 150 cm
- 59.06 in
Little is known about the development of saola
There is little information available on the mating systems of saola, but estimations were made from examining a dead pregnant female. Saola give birth between April and June. It is not known whether saola use their horns as display for mating purposes. They are similar to other Bovinae, like four-horned antelope, in that gestation lasts 8 months. Saola only have one offspring per litter.
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Saloa appear to breed once per year.
- Breeding season
- Breeding apparently takes place between August and November.
- Range number of offspring
- 1 (low)
- Average number of offspring
- Average gestation period
- 8 months
There is little information available on parental investment of saola, although Artiodactyl young are generally precocious. Like other members of the family, it is likely that most parental care is provided by the mother. Young receive nourishment from mother's milk, protection from mother, and probably some form of grooming. It has not been reported how long young are dependent upon the mother, although if soloa are like other members of the family, it is likely to be around one year.
- Parental Investment
Little is known about the life span in the wild, but in captivity, saola generally do not survive greater than 5 months. This is probably due to stress and lack of proper nutrition. Other members of the subfamiliy Bovinae can live 15 to20 years in the wild, and it is likely that this species is similar. ("Animal Fact Sheets", 2004; Robichaud, 1998)
Although there are currently no studies on saola behavior in the wild, observations have been made on captive saola. These animals seem to be active both at night and during the day, although some familiar with saola report that wild iondividuals are mostly active in the morning and late afternoon. Soala appear to be solitary animals. They also seem to engage in territorial marking by snapping small saplings with their horns. Since their horns have many scratches, it is suggested that they rub vegetation and soil as a part of social or sexual activity. The putative scent glands on the face of saloa may indicate some scent marking of territories. (Hardcastle, et al., 2004; Robichaud, 1998)
- Range territory size
- unknown to 4000 km^2
Saola tend to stay close to the Vietnam-Lao PD border, in the wet evergreen areas on the Annamite Mountains. Their geographic range is small (4000 sq km) and their home range is undetermined. (Dung, et al., 1993; Kemp, et al., 1997; Robichaud, 1998)
Communication and Perception
Saola in captivity have been observed bleating for unknown reasons. Some researchers suggest that twig breaking with horns may be a form of social and/or sexual communication. They also possess scent glands under the white markings on their faces, indicating the importance of chemical communication in this species. Although not specifically reported, we can infer that tactile communication is important during mating and rearing of young. Because these animals might have some activity during daylight hours, there may also be visual communication between individuals based on body postures and other visual signals. (Robichaud, 1998)
- Other Communication Modes
- scent marks
Saola are herbivores, primarily eating ferns and flowering plants (angiosperms). (Robichaud, 1998)
- Plant Foods
Natural predators of saola are tigers, leopards, and dholes although humans are the major predator of saola and threaten their existence. When threatened, saola use their sharp-tipped horns for protection from predators by lowering their heads to strike the predator. Although they don't appear to be frightened by humans, saola are terrified of dogs. While running from predators, their glands swell and they snort. (Robichaud, 1998; Robichaud, 1998; Hardcastle, et al., 2004; Robichaud, 1998)
Not much is known about the role saola play in the ecosystem. Since there are few saola, they probably do not greatly impact the surrounding vegetation. Although they provide potential prey to carnivorous mammals, because they are so rare it is unlikely that saola are important in local food webs.
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Saola are one of the many animals that are hunted in Vietnam and Lao PDR for meat and hide. (Robichaud, 1998)
- Positive Impacts
- body parts are source of valuable material
- research and education
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There is no known adverse affects of saola on humans.
Saola are listed as endangered. The primary threat to these animals is hunting and loss of their forest habitat due to agriculture and logging. Locals place a high value on saola because of their scarcity. Many hunters also try to capture live saola because of their importance to the scientific community. Saola don't do well in captivity, and die soon after capture. Intense conservation efforts were started in 1997 to ensure the survival of these creatures. (Kemp, et al., 1997; Robichaud, 1998)
Megamuntiacus vuquangensis (muntjak deer) and Lophura hatinhensis (pheasant).was the first new large mammal to be discovered in over 50 years. This is probably because its habitat is difficult to access, the elusive behavior of saola, and political reasons. Through further study of this species we can hopefully come to understand saola better and help these rare animals to survive and thrive in Asia. Other species recently discovered in Vietnam and Laos PDR are
Saola are large mammals that resemble antelope, (family Bovidae and subfamily Antilopinae). Although they were first thought to be more closely related to members of the subfamily Caprinae (which includes chamois, goats, sheep, and others), DNA evidence has recently placed them in the subfamily Bovinae ( which includes bison, buffalo, and cattle). (Kemp, et al., 1997; Robichaud, 1998; Weitzel, 2004)
Nancy Shefferly (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Link E. Olson (editor, instructor), University of Alaska Fairbanks, Darce Holcomb (author), University of Alaska Fairbanks.
uses sound to communicate
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
union of egg and spermatozoan
an animal that mainly eats leaves.
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
- scent marks
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
2004. "Animal Fact Sheets" (On-line). Accessed December 08, 2004 at http://www.zoo.org/educate/fact_sheets/anoa/anoa.htm.
Duckworth, J., R. Salter, K. Khounboline. 1999. Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report. Vientiane: IUCN- The World Conservation Union/ Wildlife Conservation Society/Centre for Protected Areas and Watershed Management: 1-275. Accessed November 16, 2004 at http://wcs.org/sw-around_the_globe/Asia/laos/wildlifeinlaopdr.
Dung, V., P. Giao, N. Chinh, D. Tuoc, P. Arctander. 1993. A new species of living bovid from Vietnam. Nature, 363: 443-445.
Gatesy, J., P. Arctander. 2000. Hidden morphological support for the phylogenetic placement of Pseudoryx nghetinhensis with bovine bovids: a combined analysis of gross anatomical evidence and DNA sequences from five genes. Systematic Biology, 49/3: 515-538.
Hardcastle, J., S. Cox, N. Thi Dao, A. Johns. 2004. Rediscovering the Saola. Proceedings of the "Rediscovering the saola- a status review and conservation planning workshop": 1-115. Accessed November 14, 2004 at http://www.panda.org/downloads/ecoregions/saolaproceedingenglish.pdf.
Kemp, N., M. Dilger, N. Burgess, C. Dung. 1997. The saola Pseudoryx nghetinhensis in Vietnam- new information on distribution and habitat preferences, and conservation needs. Oryx, 31/1: 37-44.
Robichaud, W. 1998. Physical and behavioral description of a captive saola, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis . Journal of Mammalogy, 79/2: 394-405.
Weitzel, V. 2004. "Australia Vietnam Science Technology Link" (On-line). New species in Vietnam. Accessed December 09, 2004 at http://coombs.anu.edu.au/~vern/species.html.