- Other Habitat Features
- Range elevation
- 2800 to 4250 m
- 9186.35 to 13943.57 ft
- Average elevation
- 3252 m
- 10669.29 ft
fur is yellowish brown, and individual hairs are black at the tips and base, resulting in a grizzled appearance. The venter is buff or light grey. Like all members of the family Leporidae, it has large, well positioned eyes that give it a broad viewing range. It is considered the most primitive of extant leporids and is often described as the second smallest leporid behind Brachylagus idahoensis. is sexually dimorphic, with males weighing on average 417 g and females, 536 g. Newborns are altricial and have closed eyes, laid-back ears, and extremely fine brown fur at birth. The vestigial tail is visible in newborns, but not in adults. bears a striking resemblance to members of the family Ochotonidae, and its skull resembles that of Ochotonidae, as both lack an anterior bony projection above the eye socket. (Cervantes and Martinez, 1992; Chapman, 1984; Hoffman, 1990; Hoth and Granados, 2007; Lopez-Paniagua, 1992)has small, short hind legs and feet; small, rounded ears; and a vestigial tail. Dorsal and lateral
- Sexual Dimorphism
- female larger
- Range mass
- 386 to 602.5 g
- 13.60 to 21.23 oz
- Range length
- 234 to 321 mm
- 9.21 to 12.64 in
Only captive (Hoth and Granados, 2007)have been observed during mating. Thus, no data are available concerning mating systems of wild populations. It communicates with conspecifics via scent glands under the chin and in their groin, and scent glands likely play a significant role in mating and signaling social status to conspecifics. In captivity, is serially monogamous (e.g., multiple pair bondings). Mate access is determined by social status, and only the dominant female and dominant male mate. If either individual dies, however, they are replaced by the highest ranking individual in the hierarchy.
- Mating System
- Key Reproductive Features
- year-round breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- induced ovulation
- Breeding interval
- can mate 4 to 5 times per year
- Breeding season
- Breeding in occurs year-round, but peaks in spring and early summer
- Range number of offspring
- 1 to 4
- Average number of offspring
- Range gestation period
- 38 to 42 days
- Average gestation period
- 39 days
- Average weaning age
- 3 weeks
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 8 months
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 5 months
Little is known of parental care in (Hoffman, 1990)in the wild. In captivity, mothers nurse semi-altricial young until weaning is complete at around 3 weeks of age. In the wild, digs shallow holes in clumps of zacaton bunch grass, which hide nests and protect young. Nests consist primarily of vegetation fragments and fur. In captivity, females avoid their nests unless young vocalize distress calls.
- Range territory size
- 2,500 to 35,000 m^2
Communication and Perception
Leporidae that is known to vocalize, reacting to help their young and making noises themselves when startled, similar to pikas. They make two different types of calls: a short high-pitched bark, and a more subtle, slightly less audible squeak. They also communicate through thumping their hind feet on the ground. Reproductive status is communicated via scent glands located on the chin and groin. (Cervantes and Martinez, 1992; Chisholm, 1911; Hoffman, 1990; Macdonald, 2001; Nowak, 1999)is the only member of family
lagomorphs, sometimes consumes their feces as a method of retaining as much nutrition and water as possible. Specific plant species eaten by include aromatic mint plant, numerous species of zacaton grass (Festuca amplissima, Stipa ichu, Epicampes), two genera of spiny grass (Erynigium and Cyrsium), lady's mantle, and Museniopsis arguta. (Chapman, 1984; Lopez-Paniagua, 1992; Velazquez and Heil, 1996)feeds primarily on zacaton grass, but also consumes young herbs and bark. During the summer rainy season, it sometimes feeds on cultivated plants. In captivity, eats zacaton grasses provided in their enclosure, as well as other traditional rabbit foods, including high-protein chinchilla pellets, fruits, grasses, and other vegetable material. Young begin eating solid food at 15 to 16 days after birth and are completely weaned by 3 weeks of age. Similar to other
- Plant Foods
- wood, bark, or stems
- seeds, grains, and nuts
- Other Foods
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Little is known of the ecological role that bobcats, long-tailed weasels, coyotes, red-tailed hawks and probably a number of other carnivorous mammals and birds. is host to a number of endoparasites including roundworms (Boreostrongylus romerolagi, Thichostrongylus calcaratus, Longistrata dubia, Dermatoxys veligera), whipworms (Trichuris leporis), and flatworms (Anoplocephaloides romerolagi). It is also host to a number of ectoparasites, including various species of flies, ticks, and fleas. (Hoffman, 1990; Velazquez and Heil, 1996; Velazquez, 1994)fills in its ecosystem. It is a folivore and may disperse seeds throughout its habitat. This species is prey for
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There are no known positive effects of (Velazquez and Heil, 1996)on humans.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Maegan Tabbey (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Berini (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
an animal that mainly eats the dung of other animals
active at dawn and dusk
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
- dominance hierarchies
ranking system or pecking order among members of a long-term social group, where dominance status affects access to resources or mates
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
an animal that mainly eats leaves.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
- induced ovulation
ovulation is stimulated by the act of copulation (does not occur spontaneously)
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
- scent marks
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
- scrub forest
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
- year-round breeding
breeding takes place throughout the year
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