Although sexes of early larvae or chalimus stages are indeterminable until the latter part of the third larval stage,is a dioecious organism. This means there are sexually distinct female organisms and sexually distinct male organisms. The males are pygmies and after the last chalmius stage they move around in search of females. There is extreme sexual dimorphism in this species.
copepod. In the adult all external signs of segmentation have disappeared. Adult females are permanently anchored to the host's flesh. They are attached by a structure called a "bulla". The bulla is nonliving. It is formed from head and maxillary gland secretions. This structure is the anchor that holds the female onto the host. The females of this family, Lernaeopodidae, are attached almost completely outside the host, which is different than most other parasitic copepod families. have huge maxillae that are fused to the bulla. Located and functioning anteriorly has modified maxillipeds for a grasping structure. The swimming legs and abdomen that is seen in most copepods is absent or vestigial in adult female .body structure is modified away from the ancestral
are permanent ecotparasites. They have only a single host throughout their entire life cycle. There are four larval stages, called chalimus stages. The fifth stage of development is the adult. In each of the larval stages the organism grows larger. On a time scale of numbered days, from hatching out of the egg the chalimus I stage is found from day 0.5 to day 1.5, the chalimus II stage days 1-2.5, the chalimus III stage days 2-4. During the late periods of the chalimus III stage sex becomes determinable. The development after this point is different between male and female . The male chalimus IV stage is found 2.5-5 days after hatching from the egg. Adult males are formed anywhere between 3-8 days. The females take more time to develop. The female chalimus stays in stage III longer than the male. She stays in stage III for up to 3-5.5 days after hatching. The IV chalimus stage is variable, existing anywhere from 4-20 days. The complete female adult does not develop until 13-20 days.
Femalemature slower (11-14 days) than the males of their same generation (3-4 days). Male have the ability to mate with chalimus IV females of their same generation and with prior generations of unfertilized, adult females. This provides a larger prospect of mating partners and reduces the unfavorable effects of inbreeding.
The first stage of larvae is able to swim and must find the host. It is free-living and non-feeding. It has a brief period of inactivity before it begins to swim. The water temperature also has a significant effect on (Conley and Curtis, 1992; Conley and Curtis, 1994; Poulin, et al., 1989; Poulin, et al., 1990)'s swimming activity and survival. In the best-suited temperatures (cooler) the organism at the infective swimming stage lives much longer. emerge at sunset when the fish tend to rest near the bottom, and increase their chances of finding a host. Once finding its host it attaches and molts into the chalimus larvae.
Crustaceans have various sensory resceptors, mainly setae over the body. Photoreceptors are also generally present.
Salvelinus. The most frequently infected Salvelinus in North America is the brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. is commonly found on the body surface, fins, and especially on the gills of its fish host. The intensity of found in the gills increases with the size of the host. is attached by a bulla to the distal tips of the host's gill filaments. Only occasionally are they attached to the body of the host. As the host size increases there is more suitable substrate in the gills to which can attach. (Black, 1982; Black, 1983)is a parasite of a fish in the genus
Although no known predators have been recorded, this species is likely ingested by fish or other aquatic predators. Mortality of the young is likely high.
Salmonid fish, such as trout that are raised in commercial hatcheries are at high risk for heavy infestations of copepodids) in contact with them. Ironically, in natural fish populations the occurrence and intensity of the infection of are usually low and have little impact of the fish.. can cause infections and create serious health problems for fish in cage culture. Larger fish circulate more water over their gills and thus bring more (also other
Copepoda. The name copepod means literally in Greek "oar-footed." This is a reference to the shape of the swimming legs Copepods have. A French scientist, Henri Milne Edwards, was the first to use the name of Copepod in 1840. He first used this name in his book, Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces. (Strickler, 2000)is in the group (subclass)
Renee Sherman Mulcrone (editor).
Megan Harris-Linton (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Barry OConnor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
non-motile; permanently attached at the base.
Attached to substratum and moving little or not at all. Synapomorphy of the Anthozoa
uses touch to communicate
uses sight to communicate
Amundsen, P., R. Kristoffersen, R. Knudsen, A. Klemetsen. 1997. Infection of Salmincola edwardsii (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) in an age-structured population of Artic charr-a long term study. Journal of Fish Biology, 51: 1033-1046.
Black, G. 1982. Gills as an attachment site for Salmincola edwardsii (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae). Journal of Parasitology, 68 (6): 1172-1173.
Black, G. 1983. Abundance and distribution of Salmincola edwardsii on anadromous brook tout, Salvelinus fontinalis in the Moisie River system, Quebec. The Fisheries Society of the British Isles, 22 (5): 567-575.
Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
Conley, D., M. Curtis. 1992. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the duration of hatching, swimming, and copepodid survival of the parasitic copepod Salmincola edwardsii . Canadian Journal of Zoology, 71 (5): 972-976.
Conley, D., M. Curtis. 1994. Larval development of the parasitic copepod Salmincola edwardsii on brook trout (Salvelinus frontinalis). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 72 (1): 154-159.
Poulin, R., D. Conley, M. Curtis. 1989. Effects of temperature fluctuations and photoperiod on hatching in the parasitic copepod Salmincola edwardsii . Canadian Jounal of Zoology, 68 (6): 1330-1332.
Poulin, R., M. Curtis, M. Rau. 1990. Responses of the fish ectoparasite Salmincola edwardsii (Copepoda) to stimulation, and their implication for host-finding. Parasitology, 100 (3): 417-421.
Roberts, L., J. Janovy, Jr. 2000. Gerald D. Schmidt & Larry S, Roberts' Foundations of Parasitology Sixth Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc..
Strickler, J. 2000. "Nerd's Corner" (On-line). Accessed 10/21/04 at http://www.uwm.edu/~jrs/nerd.htm.