- Biogeographic Regions
- Aquatic Biomes
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Average mass
- 0.050 g
- 0.00 oz
- Range length
- 12 to 15 mm
- 0.47 to 0.59 in
The larval period for Tabanidae will usually molt right after hatching occurs. However, this process has been seen to take a few days in . (Orminati and Hansens, 1947; Schwardt, 1931; Whitcomb, et al., 1997)is about 48 days. larvae are usually pale white in color, although other colors such as light yellow or pink have been observed. The length of the larval stage is quite short and may only last a month. Larvae reside mostly in the mud of ponds. go through 8 to 10 larval stages or instars. The larvae of most
- Development - Life Cycle
- Breeding season
- breed in the spring and summer months, which varies geographically.
- Average eggs per season
There is little available evidence of parental investment for.
- Parental Investment
- no parental involvement
Under laboratory conditions, female flies may survive 4 or 5 days without a source of carbohydrates. Others, who are provided carbohydrates may survive up to 42 days. (Wilson, 1967)
- Range lifespan
- 2 to 42 days
- Range lifespan
There is little available information about the home range of.
Communication and Perception
cattle, horses, mules, and humans. They usually will feed from about 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Although blood meals are required for successful reproduction, females who cannot obtain blood meals may still live just as long as those who do. Therefore, is can be assumed that carbohydrates are what keeps alive rather than nutrients in blood. (Whitcomb, et al., 1997; Wilson, 1967; Woodring and Leprince, 1992)feeds on both the blood of its hosts as well as plant nectar. Only females feed on blood, which is primarily used for oviposition and the development of eggs. Their digestive systems are unique and are able to store the ingested sugar and blood separately. Adults will feed on blood by cutting through their hosts' skin and suctioning out a blood meal. Common hosts include
When reared in captivity, larvae are known to feed on various foods. They appear to prefer snails, worms, and the abdomen of crustaceans. However, when larvae are about to transform between instars during development, they experience a time of complete rest where the will refuse any food. (Schwardt, 1931)
- Animal Foods
- terrestrial worms
- aquatic crustaceans
- Plant Foods
- Known Predators
- seriate lady beeltes (Naemia seriata)
This species acts as a parasite to both domesticated animals, such as hogs, horses, and mules, as well as humans. At every stage of its life, (Magnarelli, et al., 1986; Orminati and Hansens, 1947; Weiner and Hansens, 1975)serves as prey to a wide variety of other organisms. Adults of this species are also potential pollinators for local plants, due to their mainly nectivorous diet.
In addition to acting as a parasite, there has also been occurrences of Elaeophora schneideri). Although third stage larvae of this species have been found to infect , the prevalence is quite low. are also hosts for bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma. They most likely acquire these bacteria through their environment as it is passed to other flies at common feeding sites that contain carbohydrates like honeydew or tree sap. This association may allow humans to control populations using spiroplasmas. (Couvillion, et al., 1986; French, et al., 1997; Wedincamp, et al., 1997; Whitcomb, et al., 1997)being the infected host for the larvae of arterial worms (
- Ecosystem Impact
- domestic horses (Equus ferus caballus)
- domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)
- humans (Homo sapiens)
- bacteria (Spiroplasma)
- aterial worms (Elaeophora schneideri)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
does not appear to have any beneficial effects on humans.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
- Negative Impacts
- bites or stings
- causes or carries domestic animal disease
Diana Kaplan (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Heidi Liere (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Marino (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Barry OConnor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Rachelle Sterling (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
- causes or carries domestic animal disease
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
an animal that mainly eats nectar from flowers
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
- saltwater or marine
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
Couvillion, C., V. Nettles, D. Sheppard, R. Joyner, O. Bannaga. 1986. TEMPORAL OCCURRENCE OF THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF ELAEOPHORA SCHNEIDERI IN TABANUS LINELOA HINELLUS ON SOUTH ISLAND, SOUTH CAROLINA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 22: 196-200.
Foil, L., D. Leprince, R. Byford. 1991. Survival and Dispersal of Horse Flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) Feeding on Cattle Sprayed with a Sublethal Dose of Fenvalerate. Journal of Medical Entomology, 28: 663-667.
French, F., R. Whitcomb, J. Tully, P. Carle, J. Bove, R. Henegar, J. Adams, G. Gasparich, D. Williamson. 1997. Spiroplasma lineolae sp. nov., from the Horsefly Tabanus Lineola (Diptera: Tabanidae). International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 47/4: 1078-1081.
Joyce, J., E. Hansens. 1968. The Influence of Weather on the Activity and Behivor of Greenhead Flies, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart and Tabans lineola Fabricius. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 76: 72-80.
Magnarelli, L., J. Anderson, A. Barbour. 1986. The Etiologic Agent of Lyme Disease in Deer Flies, Horse Flies, and Mosquitoes. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 154/2: 355-358.
Orminati, S., E. Hansens. 1947. The Biology of Tabanus lineola lineola F.. Entomological Society of America, 67/6: 937-939.
Philip, C., M. Hamilton. 1942. Notes on Nearctic Tabaninae. Part III. THE TABANUS LINEOLA COMPLEX. Psyche, 48: 25-29.
Powder, W., R. Loomis. 1962. A New Species and New Records of Chiggers (Acarina, Trombiculidae) from Reptiles of Southern California. The Journal of Parasitology, 48: 204-208.
Richardson, C., B. Wilson. 1969.
Schutz, S., R. Gaugler, E. Vrijenjoek. 1989. Genetic and Morphometric Discrimination of Coastal and Inland Tabanus lineola (Diptera, Tabanidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 82: 220-224.
Schwardt, H. 1931. THE BIOLOGY OF TABANUS LINEOLA FABR.. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 24/2: 409-416.
Wedincamp, J., F. French, R. Whitcomb, R. Henegar. 1997. Laboratory Infection and Release of Spiroplasma (Entomoplasmatales: Spiroplasmataceae) from Horse Flies (Diptera: Tabanidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 32/4: 398-402.
Weiner, T., E. Hansens. 1975. Species and Numbers of Bloodsucking Flies Feeding on Hogs and Other Animals in Southern New Jersey. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 83: 198-202.
Whitcomb, R., F. French, J. Tully, P. Carle, R. Henegar, K. Hackett, G. Gasparich, D. Williamson. 1997. Spiroplasma Species, Groups, and Subgroups from North American Tabanidae. Current Microbiology, 35: 287-293.
Wilson, B. 1967. Feeding Mating and Oviposition Studies of Horse Flies Tabanus lineola and T. fuscicostatus (Diptera:Tabanidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 60: 1102.
Woodring, J., D. Leprince. 1992. The Function of Corpus Cardiacum Peptides in Horse Flies. J. Insect Physiol., 38: 775-782.