Glossary: V


This habitat is found in the Solimoes/Amazon River system. It is seasonally inundated, with annual fluctuations in water level of up to 15 m (50'). It includes tall forest, which is restricted to narrow interlinked corridors (restingas) located on alluvial levees marking the deposition areas of old watercourses. This vegetation is flooded for less than six months each year. Areas of low, dense scrub (chavascais) separate the restingas, with some open grassy areas and many ribbon-like lakes. This low vegetation is flooded for more than half the year, usually being submerged completely. At peak flood, only the canopies of the restinga trees can be seen above the water (Ayres & Johns 1987).


of or containing vessels that carry or circulate fluids, such as blood, lymph, or sap, in animals and plants.


an animal which acts to cause the infection of humans with a disease organism. For example, mosquitoes act to inject the sporozoan parasite, Plasmodium, into the human blood stream.


An extension of the umbrella which curls inward and functions in swimming. Similar in function to a velum or other hydrozoa, but structurally different. Synapomorphy of Cubozoa.


Shelf-like membrane structure on the subumbrella (ventral) surface, which extends from the outer edge to the manubrium. Synapomorphy of Hydrozoa2.


a poisonous secretion of an animal, such as a snake, spider, or scorpion, usually transmitted by a bite or sting.


an animal which has an organ capable of injecting a poisonous substance into a wound (for example, scorpions, jellyfish, and rattlesnakes).


On the lower or bottom side or surface.


resembling or shaped like a worm.


eats worms (including annelids, nematodes, and other worm-like animals)

See Also: vermiform

The bones of the axial skeleton. Synapomorphy of the Vertebrata.


An animal (including amphibians, birds, fish, mammals and reptiles) with a backbone.


movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others


uses sight to communicate


reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.