- Aquatic Biomes
- Range elevation
- 800 (low) m
- 2624.67 (low) ft
- Average elevation
- 900 m
- 2952.76 ft
Akodon is typically around 46 mL of oxygen per hour. Dorsal pelage of is auburn and fades to lighter tan on the sides. The venter is either reddish grey or reddish tan with a slight orange hew. It has tan feet and a sparsely haired tail. looks similar to Akodon cursor, however, is smaller than A. cursor. (Bozinovic, 1992; Goncalves, et al., 2007; Redford and Eisenberg, 1989; Wienke and Yahnke, 2007)is a small rodent with a heavy body that is often described as closely resembling a vole. Young differ from adults only in size, and males (45 g) are slightly larger than females (40 g). Adult mass ranges from 19 to 57 g, with a mean of 42 g. Total length of ranges from 90 to 136 mm, with hind feet ranging from 17 to 28 mm long, ears ranging from 11 to 21 mm long, and tails ranging from 32 to 98 mm long. Although its basal metabolic rate is unknown, the basal metabolic rate for other members of
- Sexual Dimorphism
- male larger
- Range mass
- 19 to 57 g
- 0.67 to 2.01 oz
- Average mass
- 42 g
- 1.48 oz
- Range length
- 90 to 136 mm
- 3.54 to 5.35 in
Reproductive behavior ofhas not been extensively studied, and the mating system that best characterizes this species is currently unknown.
Reproductive efforts of male Akodon (e.g., Akodon lindberghi and Akodon azarae) ranges from 1.97 g to 3.10 g. No information is available concerning time to independence. Reproductively active and fertile females can be found in the wild with XY chromosomes. (Couto and Talamoni, 2005; De Conto and Cerqueira, 2007; Nowalk, 1991; Suarez, et al., 2004; Wienke and Yahnke, 2007)occurs via a four-stage process. First, recrudescence of spermatogenesis occurs, followed by the act of mating. These two stages take place between October and February (the wet season). The third stage, regression of activity and spermatogenesis, and the fourth stage, rest, take place from March to July (the dry season). If the immediate environment and weather are favorable, mating can take place year round. Typically, females have two litters but may have more if environmental conditions are favorable. Litter size ranges from 3 to 10 offspring, with an average litter size of 5. On average, gestation lasts 23 days, and offspring are typically weaned within 15 days. Males achieve sexual maturity in 32 to 37 days while females achieve sexual maturity between 35 and 91 days. Sexual maturity is most often reached between October and March. No information on birth mass is available, but average birth mass of other members of
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- year-round breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Twice yearly
- Breeding season
- October to February
- Range number of offspring
- 3 to 10
- Average number of offspring
- Average gestation period
- 23 days
- Range weaning age
- 15 (high) days
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 39 to 51 days
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 32 to 37 days
No specific information is available pertaining to the lifespan of Akodon, Akodon azarae, has a maximum lifespan of 18 months but typically lives one year or less. (Higdon, 2004; Kittlein, 2008; Wienke and Yahnke, 2007), aside from observations that they have a short life expectancy and quick population turnover . One member of
- Range territory size
- 100 (high) m^2
- Average territory size
- 36 m^2
Communication and Perception
There is no information available on intraspecific communication in Akodon cursor uses olfactory cues to inform conspecifics about reproductive availability and territorial boundaries. (Higdon, 2004; Higdon, 2004). Its close relative,
- Communication Channels
fungi, plant matter, and invertebrates (e.g., insects and spiders) and does not vary in relation to season. Studies indicate that prefers foraging on the seeds and mesocarp of Leandra panifilamentosa, Myrceugenia cucullata, Rubus sellowii and Berberis laurina. Similar to other small mammals, caches food. (Talamoni, et al., 2008; Vieira, et al., 2006)is omnivorous. Its diet consists of
- Primary Diet
- Animal Foods
- terrestrial non-insect arthropods
- terrestrial worms
- Plant Foods
- roots and tubers
- seeds, grains, and nuts
- Other Foods
- Foraging Behavior
- stores or caches food
Aside from barn owls, little information is available on the major predators of . Although not documented, it is likely that mammalian carnivores, snakes, and large birds also prey on . The brownish pelage of helps it blend in with leaf litter and avoid predators. (Higdon, 2004; Jordao, et al., 2010; Pardinas, et al., 2004)
- Anti-predator Adaptations
- Known Predators
insects including beetles, moths, flies, and other arthropods. Although limited information is available concerning is major predators, it is likely an important prey item for many large birds and carnivores. In addition, it is a host to numerous species of parasitic protists in the genus Besnoitia and a variety of nematodes. It is also a known carrier of hantavirus. Finally, may play an important role in the seed dispersal of certain plant species as it is known to cache seeds throughout its home range. (Goodin, et al., 2009; Grisard, et al., 1997; Jordao, et al., 2010; Puttker, et al., 2008; Wienke and Yahnke, 2007)preys on a variety of small
- Ecosystem Impact
- disperses seeds
- nematodes, (Nematoda)
- hantaviruses, (Bunyaviridae)
- parasitic protists (Besnoitia)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There are no known positive effects of insect pest populations throughout its native range.on humans. However, it may help control
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
hantaviruses. When transmitted to humans this virus can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome which can be fatal. Secondly, some members of the genus Akodon have a significant impact on agriculture by foraging on crops (e.g., rice, maize, peanuts, and cereal crops), resulting in a 10% to 90% decrease in crop yield. (Goodin, et al., 2009; Stenseth, et al., 2003)poses two main problems for humans. First, it is a known vector for
- Negative Impacts
- carries human disease
- crop pest
Although (Pardinas, et al., 2008)is thought to be decreasing in abundance, it is currently listed as a species of least concern by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Akodon cursor. It has recently been promoted to species level based on several factors, including occupying a different elevational habitat then Akodon cursor and having a different karyotype (2n=24 for , 2n=14/15 for Akodon cursor). does not have a gall bladder but Akodon cursor does. Due to this recent change in classification, it is often difficult to determine if the study results apply to Akodon cursor or . (Wienke and Yahnke, 2007)was formerly considered a subspecies of
Meagan Crofoot (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Berini (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
- stores or caches food
places a food item in a special place to be eaten later. Also called "hoarding"
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
- year-round breeding
breeding takes place throughout the year
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