cephalopods, are the only mollusks that use jet propulsion swimming. swims by creating many rapid valve adductions that expel water from the mantle cavity. The force of the water exiting the organism pushes the individual skyward in the water column. When senses danger or any other kind of disturbance, its swimming escape reflex is triggered. Swimming is an important behavior for this species because it also provides the opportunity to move to a new environment if conditions in the old one become unfavorable. (Jenkins, et al., 2003; Kristmundsson, et al., 2011; Phillipp, et al., 2008; Schmidt, et al., 2008; Shumway and Parsons, 2006), along with other species in the family Pectinidae and the
Asteria rubens (common starfish), Pagurus spp. (hermit crabs), and Cancer pagurus (brown crab). It is also preyed on by Callionymus lyra (demersal fish). An anti-predator adaptation of this species includes jet propulsion swimming. The predator that has the biggest impact upon populations is humans. Because this organism is considered a delicacy, it is fished in great quantities. (Murray, et al., 2009; Schmidt, et al., 2008)is preyed on upon primarily by marine bottom-dwellers, such as
Asteria rubens) will prey upon these individuals. is infected by microsporidians. Little is known about these parasites, except that they are found in the digestive tract of and use the scallop's blood to move around the body. (Kristmundsson, et al., 2011; Murray, et al., 2009)has a variety of ecosystem roles. Because it is heavily fished, many undersized animals are thrown back into the water. Small individuals of can sustain shell damage during this process, which makes them especially vulnerable to predation. Starfish (
This species is not listed, but there is a high demand for its harvest. Fisheries and governments are working to a more sustainable aquaculture for this species. (Murray, et al., 2009)
Aequipecten opercularis in the scientific community. Commercially they are known as queen scallops, “queens” or “queenies”. (Barraclough, et al., 2006; Jenkins, et al., 2003; Schmidt, et al., 2008; Shumway and Parsons, 2006)is also called
Alexandra Sarabia (author), The College of New Jersey, Catherine Zymaris (author), The College of New Jersey, Keith Pecor (editor), The College of New Jersey, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects.
the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean.
Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. see also oceanic vent.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
a method of feeding where small food particles are filtered from the surrounding water by various mechanisms. Used mainly by aquatic invertebrates, especially plankton, but also by baleen whales.
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
photosynthetic or plant constituent of plankton; mainly unicellular algae. (Compare to zooplankton.)
an animal that mainly eats plankton
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
remains in the same area
non-motile; permanently attached at the base.
Attached to substratum and moving little or not at all. Synapomorphy of the Anthozoa
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
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