The tree hyrax inhabits mainly forest areas forming a band across mid-Africa extending from the eastern to the western coast.
Tree hyraxes inhabit various regions ranging from wooded areas and savannas to coastal dunes and tropical rainforests.
This rodent-looking mammal has short ears and legs, thick, soft fur with gray-brown to black colorings. The hyrax has a distinct patch of lighter colored hair on its back which covers a scent gland and bristles when the animal is excited or mating. Typically the tree hyrax is about 1-2.5 feet in length, has a height at the shoulders of 10-12 inches.
- Range mass
- 1 to 5 kg
- 2.20 to 11.01 lb
The tree hyrax has an unusually long gestation period for its size; ranging from 6.5 to 7.5 months. Sexual maturity is reached around 16 months of age. Litter sizes of 1-2 are common, unlike the larger litters of other hyraxes. The young are born fully furred and rather large. By the age of one day they are competent climbers. There is little data on the mating systems of these animals due to their nocturnal lifestyle, however it is believed that within the small groups there is one dominant male and the rest of the males form bachelor herds.
- Key Reproductive Features
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Average lifespan
- 5.5 years
- Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
- Average lifespan
These mammals are nocturnal and usually live a solitary life. There are some exceptions where they live in small family groups. Vocalization is a very important method for transferring information in these animals. They are known for their very loud and piercing contact calls that are generally made after dark when the hyrax is leaving to forage.
- Key Behaviors
Communication and Perception
Unlike the other species of hyrax, the tree hyrax is a nocturnal forager. It is mainly herbivorous, feeding on leaves, fruits, bark, twigs, and grasses as well as an occasional insect.
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
The soft furs of the eastern tree hyrax are sold for a high price value in many regions.
The status of the tree hyrax is said to be rare. Although not endangered, they are thought to be threatened due to habitat destruction.
Despite their rodent-like appearance the hyrax have been placed in their own group due to their unique characteristics. However, their closest relatives are believed to be Proboscidea (elephants). Both have developed a pair of upper incisors that are used as defensive tusks. Secondly the hyrax had flat nails on their feet that resemble the hoofs of elephants. According to amino acid sampling, these two groups are closely related as well.
Barbara Lundrigan (author), Michigan State University, Gretchen Yurk (author), Michigan State University.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
- scrub forest
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
Gaylard, A., G. Kerley. 1997. Diet of Tree Hyraxes Dendrohyrax arboreus (Hyracoidea:Procaviidae) In the Eastern cape, South Africa. Journal of Mammalogy: 213-219.
Mailoiy, G., R. Eley. 1992. The Hyrax. Nairobi: Regal Press.
Sentman, E. 1992. Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc..
Wildlife Fact File, 1997. Tree Hyrax card 139.