, otherwise known as the Humboldt or jumbo squid, inhabits the Eastern Pacific Ocean from northern California to southern Chile. This squid is believed to have both small scale migration within the Gulf of California, from the Baja peninsula to Guaymas Basin. It may also have a large scale migration as part of its life cycle, but little about their large scale migration is known.
occupies vast habitat that ranges in depths from >250m during the day to near surface depths at night. This diel migration, or vertical migration between the day and night, is also characteristic of many prey species of , so it is thought that the squid performs this vertical migration in order to follow its prey.
Although waters around and below 250 meters deep are often relatively hypoxic,can apparently tolerate the low dissolved oxygen levels by suppressing its rate of oxygen consumption.
- Range depth
- 0 to 700 m
- 0.00 to 2296.59 ft
Ommastrephidae. These squid can weigh up to 50kg and have a mantle length of up to 2m. This species, like other squid, move via jet propulsion by moving water through their mantle as well as by fin movement.is the largest squid in the family
- Sexual Dimorphism
- female larger
- Range mass
- 50 (high) kg
- 110.13 (high) lb
- Range length
- 2 (high) m
- 6.56 (high) ft
has direct development and grows very quickly; its lifespan is only about one year. The embryo develops for 6-9 days then hatches into a paralarval stage called a rhynchoteuthion when it is about 1mm. This paralarva (1-10mm mantle length) is distinguished by having its two tentacles fused into a proboscis, and survives in the upper planktonic layer. There it grows to become a juvenile (15-100mm mantle length). The juvenile then morphs into a subadult (150-350mm mantle length) before finally developing into an adult. During these developmental stages, the morphology and feeding habits of the squid changes.
only has one reproductive cycle during their lifetime, so they are known as monocyclic. Squids mate in a head to head position. Fertilization takes place inside the female. The two squids intertwine tentacles and the male places its spermatophores inside the buccal (oral) membrane of the female.
Because these squid spend much of their time below 250m, details about courtship is unknown, but sometimes mating has been observed at or near the surface. Given their well-developed brain, eyes, and chromatophore arrays, it's likely that some kind of courtship displays and behavior occur in this species, but it has not been documented. (Nigmatullin, et al., 2001)
is believed to have only one reproductive cycle during their lifetime. Squids mate in a head to head position. Fertilization takes place inside the female. The two squids intertwine tentacles and the male places its spermatophores inside the buccal (oral) membrane of the female.
Females produce floating egg masses protected by a layer of jelly. The only documented mass found in the wild contained an estimated 0.6-2.0 million eggs (Staaf et alia, 2008). Examination of gravid females suggests that each female can produce 3-20 such masses.
Based on collections of newly hatched individuals, spawning is believed to occurs throughout the year, with peaks from October through January in the Southern Hemisphere. (MarineBio.org, 2008; Nigmatullin, et al., 2001; Staaf, et al., 2008)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding season
- Spawning season varies by locality
- Range number of offspring
- 5,000,000 to 32,000,000
- Average number of offspring
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 184 to 395 days
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 236 days
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 196 to 276 days
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 219 days
While fertilization occurs inside the female, once she lays the loose jelly-like egg batch there is no further parental investment. (Nigmatullin, et al., 2001)
- Parental Investment
- no parental involvement
The longevity of this squid is about one year on average. Larger individuals can live up to 2 years. In captivity, captured Humboldt squid rarely live past a few days. (Lovgren, 2003; Nigmatullin, et al., 2001)
- Range lifespan
- 2 (high) years
- Range lifespan
- Average lifespan
- 1 years
- Average lifespan
- Average lifespan
- 1 years
- Average lifespan
Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis for food, has been observed schooling with this other squid.has a well developed brain, mantle, and fins. Juveniles cohorts are the most active, as they swim in schools of 20-40 individuals 20-50m below the surface and may even jump out of the water in order to avoid predators. Subadults are less active and either hunt alone or congregate into hunting schools of 20-200 individuals. Adults are least abundant in schools, with only 2-12 adults in a school. Adults can be aggressive. Cannibalism has been observed, but only when one of the squid was caught on a fishing line. While there may be competition with other squid species such as
Jumbo squid are known to show diel vertical migration, swimming deep during the day and approaching the surface at night. They also probably have small and large-scale horizontal migration patterns, but very little is known of the details. Small scale migration within the Gulf of California, from the Baja peninsula to Guaymas Basin has been documented. Abundance of newly-hatched young suggest that there are spawning areas in the Gulf of California and the around the Costa Rican Dome.
Given their well-developed brain, eyes, and chromatophores, courtship and other social communication is likely, but has not been documented. (MarineBio.org, 2008; Nigmatullin, et al., 2001; Staaf, et al., 2008)
It is unknown if a Humboldt squid has a home range. (MarineBio.org, 2008)
Communication and Perception
copepods and pelagic shrimp, and as grows, its diet shifts more towards fish and other cephalopods. During their nightly vertical migration to the surface waters, adult feed mainly on lanternfish, but will feed on a variety of other pelagic species including other fish, squids, and octopuses. Adults have been known to eat juveniles of their own species. (MarineBio.org, 2008; Nigmatullin, et al., 2001)is an active predator and pursues its prey. It uses suckers on its tentacles to capture prey animals and bring them towards its beak. Juveniles eat
- Animal Foods
- aquatic crustaceans
- other marine invertebrates
Juvenile tunas, other squid (Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis) and gulls. Once they reach 150mm to around 250mm in length, they start to become preyed upon by dorado, large tunas (and related species), as well as large sharks, swordfish and striped marlins, fur seals, sperm whales and short-finned pilot whales.are preyed upon by juvenile carnivorous fishes, including small
- Anti-predator Adaptations
- Known Predators
- sperm whales (Physeter catodon)
- Juan Fernandez fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii)
- Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi)
- Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis
- dorado (Coryphaena hippurus)
- swordfish (Xiphias gladius)
- striped marlins (Tetrapturus audax)
- short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus)
is a large and abundant pelagic species, and can play a very important role both as food for predators and as a mid-level carnivore. The species has very high reproductive potential, and when conditions are right, populations of the species can increase very fast.
There are also 9-12 parasitic worm species (trematodes, nematodes and cestodes) that infect the larval (Nigmatullin, et al., 2001), as well as a type of ciliate parasite genus found in this squid.
- Chromidina (a ciliate protozoan)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Thefishery is one of the largest fisheries in the Central Eastern Pacific (measured by annual tonnage caught), and is the largest cephalopod fishery in the world.
- Positive Impacts
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
The food demands of, puts them in competition with humans for some commercially harvested fish or other squid. With climate change occurring and shifting their range, may begin to affect fish stocks in the northern Pacific.
These squid are large enough to be a potential danger to human divers. (Olsen and Young, 2007)
- Negative Impacts
- bites or stings
Dosidics gigas was originally discovered in 1835 and named . Later that century the genus Dosidicus was created, and finally in 1912, the similarities between the jumbo squid and the other species led to the taxonomic name change to . (Nigmatullin, et al., 2001)
Jessica Kurth (author), Rutgers University, Michael Garzio (author), Rutgers University, David Howe (editor, instructor), Rutgers University .
- Pacific Ocean
body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds
imitates a communication signal or appearance of another kind of organism
eats mollusks, members of Phylum Mollusca
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
An aquatic biome consisting of the open ocean, far from land, does not include sea bottom (benthic zone).
generates and uses light to communicate
an animal that mainly eats fish
- saltwater or marine
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
- young precocial
young are relatively well-developed when born
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
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Staaf, D., S. Camarillo-Coop, S. Haddock, A. Nyack, J. Payne, C. Salinas- Zavala, B. Seibel, L. Trueblood, C. Widmer, W. Gilly. 2008. Natural Egg Mass Deposition by the Humboldt Squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Gulf of California and Characteristics of Hatchlings and Paralarvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 88: 759-770.
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