- Other Geographic Terms
- Aquatic Biomes
- lakes and ponds
- rivers and streams
- Range depth
- 0.25 to 0.40 m
- 0.82 to 1.31 ft
- Range length
- 9 to 15 mm
- 0.35 to 0.59 in
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- simultaneous hermaphrodite
- Breeding interval
- can mate and/or reproduce many times in its life.
- Breeding season
- Reproduction peaks in the summer.
- Range number of offspring
- 1 to 7
Dugensia tigrina produces a cocoon for every group of offspring produced, and provides provisioning. Otherwise, there is no parental care. (Vreys, et al., 2002)
- Parental Investment
- no parental involvement
Communication and Perception
Being an opportunistic predator, chironomids and mosquitoes), small round worms, and the soft structures of some freshwater sponges. uses its mucus secretions not only for gliding locomotion but also for capturing prey items. It has been observed that exhibits a threshold temperature for feeding. Feeding is significantly reduced or completely stops below a critical temperature of 6°C. (Cash, et al., 1993; Pickavance, 1971)primarily forages on small crustaceans, insect larvae (particularly those of
- Animal Foods
- aquatic or marine worms
- aquatic crustaceans
Common predators of Odonata larvae. Mucus secreted from functions to inhibit being captured by these organisms. Group foraging is reported to increase survival rates. (Cash, et al., 1993; Davies and Reynoldson, 1969)include freshwater fish, amphibians such as newts, and some insect larvae, including
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
- research and education
- controls pest population
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known adverse effects ofon humans.
has no special conservation status.
Girardia tigrina in the current literature.is also referred to as
It is suggested that feeding populations of this species do not age and are therefore considered immortal due to their regenerative capabilities.
Rosario Saccomanno (author), The College of New Jersey, Keith Pecor (editor), The College of New Jersey, Angela Miner (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
reproduction that is not sexual; that is, reproduction that does not include recombining the genotypes of two parents
Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. see also oceanic vent.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
a distribution that more or less circles the Arctic, so occurring in both the Nearctic and Palearctic biogeographic regions.
Found in northern North America and northern Europe or Asia.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
uses sight to communicate
Cash, K., M. McKee, F. Wrona. 1993. Short- and long-term consequences of grouping and group foraging in the free-living flatworm Journal of Animal Ecology, 62: 529-535..
Davies, R., T. Reynoldson. 1969. The incidence and intensity of predation on lake-dwelling triclads in the laboratory. Ecology, 50: 845-853.
Folsom, T., H. Clifford. 1978. The population biology of Platyhelminthes: Tubellaria) in a thermally enriched Alberta, Canada lake. Ecology, 59: 966-975.(
Gee, H., J. Pickavance, J. Young. 1998. A comparative study of the population biology of the American immigrant triclad Hydrobiologia, 361: 135-143.(Girard) in two British lakes.
Meyer, H., L. Learned. 1981. A field test of the potential of a local flatworm, North Dakota Farm Research, 39: 19-21., for biological control of mosquitoes in temporary pools.
Pickavance, J. 1971. The diet of the immigrant planarian Journal of Animal Ecology, 40: 623-635.(Girard): I. Feeding in the laboratory.
Salo, E., J. Baguna. 1984. Regeneration and pattern formation in planarians. I. The pattern of mitosis in anterior and posterior regeneration in Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology, 83: 63-80., and a new proposal for blastema formation.
Sinko, J., W. Streifer. 1971. A model for population reproducing by fission. Ecology, 52: 330-335.
Sluys, R., M. Kawakatsu, K. Yamamoto. 2010. Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan. Belgian Journal of Zoology, 140: 103-109.
Stokely, P., T. Brown, F. Kuchan, T. Slaga. 1965. The distribution of fresh-water triclad planarians in Jefferson County, Ohio. The Ohio Journal of Science, 65: 305-318.
Takano, T., J. Pulvers, T. Inoue, H. Tarui, H. Sakamoto, K. Agata, Y. Umesono. 2007. Regeneration-dependent conditional gene knockdown (Readyknock) in planarian: demonstration of requirement for Djsnap-25 expression in the brain for negative phototactic behavior. Development, Growth and Differentiation, 49: 383-394.
Vowinckel, C., J. Marsden. 1971. Reproduction of Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology, 26: 599-609.under short-day and long-day conditions at different temperatures. II. Asexually derived individuals.
Vreys, C., J. Crain, S. Hamilton, S. Williamson, N. Steffanie. 2002. Evidence for unconditional sperm transfer and sperm-dependent parthenogenesis in a hermaphroditic flatworm (Girardia tigrina) with fissipary. Journal of Zoology, 257/1: 43-52.