Solae solae). As such, its range is limited to geographic areas inhabited by the common sole, mostly in the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Norway to Senegal and in the Mediterranean Sea. The common sole is frequently harvested for food in Europe, and a large number of parasitic infections by have been reported in captivity. (Harris and Bray, 2012; Kearn, 2002)is a monogenean flatworm and an ectoparasite of the common sole (
Solae, with a strong preference for Solae solae over other soleid fish. Solae solae is most commonly found hidden within the sand or mud in shallow waters. While larvae may initially be free-swimming, adults live exclusively on the skin of the host. A free-swimming larva will attach to the dorsum of the host and migrate toward the host's ventral surface, which is in contact with the sea floor, where it completes development and reproduces. (Kearn and Evans-Gowing, 1998; Kearn, 1967; Kearn, 2002; Sukhedo and Sukhedo, 2002)is generally found in temperate, marine environments high in host availability. has extremely high host exclusivity, with literature citing only three possible host species, all within genus
- Aquatic Biomes
- Range depth
- 0 to 152 m
- 0.00 to 498.69 ft
- Range length
- 2 to 6 mm
- 0.08 to 0.24 in
- Development - Life Cycle
- Range gestation period
- 0.08 to 168 minutes
does not provide any parental involvement.
- Parental Investment
- no parental involvement
Individuals of (Kearn, 1990)have a lifespan of up to 6.5 months. There is no observed difference between those individuals obtained from the wild and those grown in a laboratory setting.
- Range lifespan
- 6.5 (high) months
- Range lifespan
- Range lifespan
- 6.5 (high) months
- Range lifespan
- Key Behaviors
Communication and Perception
Mucus, from the epidermis of the sole, and urea, from the urine of a nearby host, can stimulate eggs to hatch, possibly increasing the chances of larvae to make contact with a host. During the oncomiracidium stage, individuals of (Kearn, 1967; Kearn, 1980; Kearn, et al., 1993)find their hosts by chemoreception to a substance secreted by the host's mucus cells in its epidermis. A theorized search pattern for hosts is accomplished with the coupling of horizontal transport of larvae by water currents and photopositive and photonegative vertical movements. Photopositive vertical movements become less frequent as the larvae grow older. Larvae have also been shown to find prey in the presence of only infra-red light. It is hypothesized that pheromone attractions allow for early mating among the individuals.
- Other Communication Modes
Solea solea and uses its pharynx as its feeding organ. There are glands in the pharynx that secrete proteolytic enzymes to digest the epidermis of the flatfish. The pharynx sucks in the digested food in liquid form for absorption in the intestinal diverticula. (Kearn, 1963c)is a skin parasite of
- Animal Foods
There are no known predators ofreported in literature.
Solea solea, a flatfish. In the wild, only a few parasites are found on a given host. In fish farms, a few hundred parasites can be found per fish, causing mass skin inflammation and death. (Kearn, et al., 1993)is a skin parasite. The host is specific for this monogenean parasite and is
- Ecosystem Impact
- Common sole, Solea solea
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There are no known positive effects ofon humans.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
has no special conservation status.
Kunal Chaudhary (author), The College of New Jersey, Brandon Zurawlow (author), The College of New Jersey, Keith Pecor (editor), The College of New Jersey, Angela Miner (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
- Atlantic Ocean
the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean.
Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. see also oceanic vent.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
(as keyword in perception channel section) This animal has a special ability to detect heat from other organisms in its environment.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
an animal that mainly eats fish
condition of hermaphroditic animals (and plants) in which the male organs and their products appear before the female organs and their products
- saltwater or marine
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Dinis, M., L. Ribeiro, F. Soares, C. Sarasquete. 1999. A review on the cultivation potential of Solea senegalensis in Spain and in Portugal. Aquaculture, 176/1-2: 27-38.
El-Naggar, M., G. Kearn. 1983. Glands associated with the anterior adhesive areas and body margins in the skin-parasitic monogenean International Journal for Parasitology, 13/1: 67-81..
Harris, P., R. Bray. 2012. "http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=119432.(van Beneden & Hesse, 1864)" (On-line). World Register of Marine Species. Accessed October 25, 2012 at
Kearn, G. 1973. An endogenous circadian hatching rhythm in the monogenean skin parasite Solea solea). Parasitology, 66: 101-122., and its relationship to the activity rhythm of the host (
Kearn, G. 2002. International Journal for Parasitology, 32/3: 367-372.- pointers to the future.
Kearn, G. 1985. Observations on egg production in the monogenean International Journal for Parasitology, 15/2: 585-605..
Kearn, G. 1963. The egg, oncomiracidium, and larval development of Parasitology, 53/3-4: 435-447., a monogenean skin parasite of the common sole.
Kearn, G. 1963. The life cycle of the monogenean Parasitology, 53: 253-263., a skin parasite of the common sole.
Kearn, G. 1990. The rate of development and longevity of the monogenean skin parasite Journal for Helminthology, 64: 340-342..
Kearn, G., R. Evans-Gowing. 1998. Attachment and detachment of the anterior adhesive pads of the monogenean (platyhelminth) parasite Solea solea). International Journal for Parasitology, 28: 1583-1593.from the skin of the common sole (
Kearn, G., R. James, R. Evans-Gowing. 1993. Insemination and population density in Solea solea. International Journal for Parasitology, 23/7: 891-899., a monogenean skin parasite of the common sole,
Kearn, G. 1967. Experiments on host-finding and host-specificity in the monogenean skin parasite Parasitology, 57: 585-605..
Kearn, G. 1963. Feeding in some monogenean skin parasites: Solea solea and Acanthocotyle sp. on Raia clavata. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 43: 749-767.on
Kearn, G. 1980. Light and gravity responses of the oncomiracidium of Parasitology, 81: 71-89.and their role in host location.
Kearn, G. 1964. The attachment of the monogenean Parasitology, 54: 327-335.to the skin of the common sole.
Sukhedo, M., S. Sukhedo. 2002. Fixed behaviors and migration in parasitic flatworms. International Journal for Parasitology, 32: 329-342.