In general, nudibranchs are simultaneous hermaphrodites and produce both sperm and eggs. Two nudibranchs will exchange sperm sacs with each other to mate. Eggs are typically deposited on sponges. Gestation occurs over 5 to 50 days and in warmer waters, egg maturation occurs sooner. (Karlsson and Haase, 2002)
Larvae are free-living, and thus drift unprotected by either parent. (Karlsson and Haase, 2002)
Sea slugs in general are preyed upon by crabs, lobsters, sea spiders, and other predatory sea slugs (e.g. Navanax inermis).
Sea slugs in general have been able to develop several defense mechanisms, including the ability to secrete toxic chemicals. It does this by retaining stinging cells from the animals that it ingests. Nudibranchs are also able to camoflouge themselves by taking on the color of anything they have eaten. These mechanisms can be used to scare off predators or inflict harm on the predator. (Cimino, et al., 1999; Fontana, et al., 1999; Rudman, 1998; Ruigómez, 2007)
is aesthetically appealing to snorklers and divers, and add to the beauty and diversity of marine life. However beyond their aesthetic appeal it has little to no significance to humans.
There are no known adverse effects ofon humans.
Melanie Kuehl (author), Rutgers University, Joanne Sountis (author), Rutgers University, Christy Young (author), Rutgers University, Craig Zagata (author), Rutgers University, David V. Howe (editor), Rutgers University, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects.
body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.
having coloration that serves a protective function for the animal, usually used to refer to animals with colors that warn predators of their toxicity. For example: animals with bright red or yellow coloration are often toxic or distasteful.
Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. see also oceanic vent.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
humans benefit economically by promoting tourism that focuses on the appreciation of natural areas or animals. Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
the area of shoreline influenced mainly by the tides, between the highest and lowest reaches of the tide. An aquatic habitat.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
imitates a communication signal or appearance of another kind of organism
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
An aquatic biome consisting of the open ocean, far from land, does not include sea bottom (benthic zone).
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
structure produced by the calcium carbonate skeletons of coral polyps (Class Anthozoa). Coral reefs are found in warm, shallow oceans with low nutrient availability. They form the basis for rich communities of other invertebrates, plants, fish, and protists. The polyps live only on the reef surface. Because they depend on symbiotic photosynthetic algae, zooxanthellae, they cannot live where light does not penetrate.
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
Banks, I. 2006. "Black-margined Glossodoris" (On-line). Diving the Gold Coast. Accessed December 02, 2010 at http://www.divingthegoldcoast.com.au/index.asp?PageID=animal&CritterID=149.
Cimino, G., S. De Rosa, S. De Stefano, G. Sodano, G. Villani. 1999. Dorid nudibranch elaborates its own chemical defense. Science, 219: 1237-1238.
Ellis, W. 1999. "Australasian Nudibranch News" (On-line pdf). Accessed December 02, 2010 at http://slugsite.tierranet.com/news/anews12.pdf.
Fontana, A., P. Cavaliere, N. Ungur, L. D'Souza, P. Parameswaram, G. Cimino. 1999. New scalaranes from the nudibranch Glossodoris atromarginata and its sponge prey. Journal of Natural Products, 62/10: 1367 -1370.
Karlsson, A., M. Haase. 2002. The enigmatic mating behaviour and reproduction of a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the nudibranch Aeolidiella glauca (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80/2: 260-270. Accessed December 02, 2010 at http://rparticle.web-p.cisti.nrc.ca/rparticle/AbstractTemplateServlet?calyLang=eng&journal=cjz&volume=80&year=2002&issue=2&msno=z02-001.
Rudman, W. 1998. "Glossodoris atromarginata (Cuvier, 1804)" (On-line). Sea Slug Forum. Accessed February 23, 2011 at http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/glosatro.
Ruigómez, V. 2007. "Nudibranchs: Beautiful but dangerous marine creatures" (On-line). Advanced aquarist's online magazine. Accessed February 23, 2011 at http://www.advancedaquarist.com/2007/11/aafeature2.
Valdés, A., M. Adams. 2005. A new species of Glossodoris (Mollusca: Nudibranchia), of the Glossodoris atromarginata color group, from Indonesia. Pacific science, Volume 59/Issue 4: 603-608. Accessed December 02, 2010 at http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pacific_science/toc/psc59.4.html.