- Other Habitat Features
- Range elevation
- 400 to 1600 m
- 1312.34 to 5249.34 ft
These are medium-sized bats ranging in length from 43 to 65 mm and averaging 9.5 g in weight. Coloration varies from dark brown to lighter brown to reddish brown. The tongue is long and covered with bristle-like papillae. The cheeck teeth are narrow and elongated and the lower incisors are very small. The upper incisors are not procumbent and lower incisors are clearly separated from each other and evenly spaced. The rostrum is shorter than some other nectar-feeding phyllostomids (Nowak 1983, Emmons 1990). (Emmons, 1990; Nowak, 1983)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Average mass
- 9.3 g
- 0.33 oz
- Range length
- 43 to 65 mm
- 1.69 to 2.56 in
- Range wingspan
- 32 to 42 mm
- 1.26 to 1.65 in
Little is known of social behavior and mating systems in these bats or their relatives.
Breeding behavior is unknown and pregnancies have occured in various months throughout the year. Pregnancies have been recorded in from January through April, July, and September to October. It is assumed that these are year round breeders and have young when food is plentiful (Nowak 1994, Wilfried 1984). (Nowak, 1983; Wilfried, 1984)
- Key Reproductive Features
- year-round breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding season
- Breeding occurs throughout the year.
- Range number of offspring
- 1 to 2
Little is known about parental invesment in these bats. In most bat species, females care for and nurse their young until they become volant, within a few months of birth.
- Parental Investment
- no parental involvement
Little is known of social behavior in these bats or their relatives. They roost in small to large colonies. A related species, G. soricina is reported to defend small feeding territories. They may become torpid during the day and are active mainly at night. (Nowak, 1983)
Communication and Perception
Glossophaga species emit sound signals through their nostrils. The leaf-like structure of the nose functions like a megaphone. Their typical calls include constant frequency (CF) components followed by a short frequency modulated (FM) component. Constant frequencies are used to pick up objects from distances and aren't very accurate. Frequency modulated calls are used up close to get a better fix on the location of the target (Webster and Jones 1993).
These bats also have keen eyesight and sense of smell. (Webster and Jones, 1993)
- Animal Foods
- Plant Foods
As are most bats, Commissaris' long-tongued bats avoid predation mainly by being active at night, being cryptically colored, roosting in safer structures, and through agile flight. Bats are preyed on by nocturnal or crepuscular birds of prey, particularly owls, and by snakes and other small predators capable of climbing into roosts.
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Quinata bombacopsis is a tree species that benefits from seed dispersal (Wilson 1997). (Wilson, 1997)individuals are important pollinators in the ecosystems in which they live. Their feeding habits allow then to cross pollinate plants in the forest and by eating fruits they also provide a seed dispersal service.
- Ecosystem Impact
- disperses seeds
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
- pollinates crops
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no negative impacts of.
Although local habitat destruction may threaten local populations, these bats remain fairly common throughout their range.
Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Paul Clemens (author), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Chris Yahnke (editor), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
used loosely to describe any group of organisms living together or in close proximity to each other - for example nesting shorebirds that live in large colonies. More specifically refers to a group of organisms in which members act as specialized subunits (a continuous, modular society) - as in clonal organisms.
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
The process by which an animal locates itself with respect to other animals and objects by emitting sound waves and sensing the pattern of the reflected sound waves.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats nectar from flowers
active during the night
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
- year-round breeding
breeding takes place throughout the year
Eisenberg, J. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics, The Northern Neotropics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Emmons, L. 1990. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
Hellebuyck, V., J. Tamsitt, J. Hartman. 1985. Records of Bats new to El Salvador. Journal of Mammalogy, 66: 783-788.
Nowak, R. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World 4th edition. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Unversity Press.
Reid, F. 1997. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and Southeastern Mexico. New York: Oxford University Press.
Webster, D., K. Jones. 1993. Glossophaga commissarisi. Mammalian Species, 446: 1-4.
Wilfried, S. 1984. The Lives of Bats. New York: Arco Publishing INC..
Wilson, D. 1997. Bats in Question. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.