Throughout its geographic range, Proechimys semispinosus, by being a habitat specialist living in wet microhabitats. (Eisenberg and Redford, 1999; Emmons, 1997; Grzimek, 2003; Reid, 1997; Tomblin and Adler, 1998)is found in primary forests, disturbed forests, deserted farmlands, palm swamps, and lowland tropical evergreen forests. However, is considered a habitat specialist because it is usualy found near wet habitats, such as wet lowland rainforests and stream sides. In fact it lives in the wettest forest habitat in the world, the pluvial rainforests of western Columbia. It prefers stream sides with steep slopes, rocky banks, plenty of fallen logs and a tall canopy. limits competition with a closely related, sympatric species,
In some parts of its geographic range, Proechimys semispinosus. In other parts of its range, breeds seasonally. Pregnant females were found from February to July. This corresponds to the end of the dry season and beginning of the wet season. This also happens to be when food supply is at its peak. (Grzimek, 2003; Mendez, 1993; Nowak, 1997; Reid, 1997)breeds year round. It has a gestation period of 64 days and gives birth to one to three precocial young. Additional information on reproductive behavior for is not available, but time of weaning is three to four weeks, and sexual maturity is reached at five months in the closely related species
Coleoptera and Orthoptera, and soft seeds, bananas, wild figs, avocadoes, mangoes, and other fruits make up the majority of its diet. Fruit is most abundant at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the wet season. Haplomys gymnurus caches some foods in its burrow. (Eisenberg and Redford, 1999; Mendez, 1993; Reid, 1997; Tomblin and Adler, 1998)is primarily a frugivore, but it also includes some insects in its diet. Most insects consumed are of the orders
The spines of (Grzimek, 2003)are a great defense mechanism against predators. In addition to the spines can drop its tail to confuse or escape a predator.
Haplomys gymnurus also affects the ecosystem by changing habitats with its burrows and pathways. These actions can create microhabitats for smaller organisms. They also affect animals that they may steal burrows from. One excavation of a burrow that was inhabiting revealed an extra cavity that was full of the eggs of an iguanid lizard. (Buchanan and Howell, 1965)
Some native people of Panama eat (Mendez, 1993).
Echinococcus oligarthrus is an extremely rare cause of human echinococcosis, but can be very dangerous to humans. Echinococcosis in humans causes cysts to form on internal organs like the liver and lungs. ("Parasitic Disease Information Factsheet: Leishmania Infection", 2000; "Parasites and Health: Echinococcosis", 2002; Derlet, 2002; Mendez, 1993)is involved in the transmission of some human and animal diseases. Equine encephalitis has a mortality rate as high as 20% in humans and 80% in horses. Cutaneous leishmaniansis causes sores to develop on the skin of the infected person. Some of the sores can be very large and painful.
Matthew Wund (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
Patrick Cusick (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor, instructor), Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
parental care is carried out by females
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
Referring to a burrowing life-style or behavior, specialized for digging or burrowing.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
having more than one female as a mate at one time
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
places a food item in a special place to be eaten later. Also called "hoarding"
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
breeding takes place throughout the year
young are relatively well-developed when born
NatureServe. 2003. "InfoNatura: Birds, mammals, and amphibians of Latin America" (On-line). Accessed March 30, 2004 at http://www.natureserve.org/infonatura/servlet/InfoNatura?searchName=Hoplomys+gymnurus.
CDC. 2002. "Parasites and Health: Echinococcosis" (On-line). Accessed March 31, 2004 at http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/Echinococcosis.htm.
CDC. 2000. "Parasitic Disease Information Factsheet: Leishmania Infection" (On-line). Accessed April 01, 2004 at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/leishmania/factsht_leishmania.htm.
Adler, G., D. Tomblin, T. Lambert. 1998. Ecology of two species of echimyid rodents (Proechimys semispinosus) in central Panama.. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 14: 711-717.and
Buchanan, O., T. Howell. 1965. Observations on the natural history of the thick-spined rat, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 13: 549-559., in Nicaragua..
Derlet, R. 2002. "CBRNE - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis" (On-line). eMedicine. Accessed March 30, 2004 at http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic886.htm.
Eisenberg, J., K. Redford. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics, Vol. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Emmons, L. 1997. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide 2nd ed.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Grzimek, B. 2003. Armored Rat. Pp. 453-454 in M Hutchins, N Schlager, D Olendorf, M McDade, eds. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. Vol. 16, 2nd Ed. Edition. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group.
Mendez, E. 1993. Los Roedores De Panama. Panama City, Panama: Impresora Pacifico, S.A..
Nowak, R. 1997. "Armored rat, or thick-spined rat" (On-line). Walker's mammals of the world online 5.1. Accessed March 24, 2004 at http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/walkers_mammals_of_the_world/rodentia/rodentia.echimyidae.hoplomys.html.
Reid, F. 1997. Field Guide to Mammals of Central America and Southeast Mexico. UK: Oxford University Press.
Tomblin, D., G. Adler. 1998. Differences in habitat use between two morphologically similar tropical forest rodents.. Journal of Mammalogy, 79(3): 953-961.
Wright, S., H. Duber. 2001. Poachers and forest fragmentation alter seed dispersal, seed survival, and seedling recruitment in the palm Attalea butyraceae, with implications for tropical tree diversity.. Biotropica, 33(4): 583-595.