- Range elevation
- 500 (high) m
- 1640.42 (high) ft
adults share many similarities with other troupial species, however, it also has distinct features that make it morphologically different such as the size of its ocular patch. Campo troupials significantly lack the ocular patch that is common to the other two troupial species. This species measures 23 to 23.5 cm in length and features a wingspan of 105 to 107 mm.
Campo troupials are beautiful birds with striking orange, black, and white plumage. They feature a black hood, breast, and wings. The black wings are patterned with white and orange feathers. The feathers of the upper and lower back are orange, as are those of the rump and upper tail. The upper parts, the lower back, and the area from the lower breast to the undertail are orange as well. Campo troupials' tails are solid black, unlike the black and white patterned tails of Venezuelan troupials. Feathers of the breast and throat are pointed, similar to orange-backed troupials. The legs and feet are grey and the eyes are orange-yellow.
Female campo troupials are very similar to males both in size and color. A 2008 study conducted by Hoffman, Cronin, and Omland showed that there is very little difference in the color saturation of male and female breast feathers. The same study also verified that there is little to no difference between the throat feathers of the two sexes. Like most other tropical species, campo troupials are observed to be sexually monomorphic.
Juvenileare not very different from adults in color. The black in the adult is replaced by a dull brownish-black color, and the under-parts are a dull orange-yellow color rather than bright orange. They also have darker eyes than adults.
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range length
- 23 to 23.5 cm
- 9.06 to 9.25 in
- Range wingspan
- 105 to 107 mm
- 4.13 to 4.21 in
All members of the genus are thought to be socially monogamous. There is speculation that tropical species including (Price, et al., 2009)may have lifelong pair bonds.
- Mating System
The breeding season foroccurs in February. Currently, there is no other information about reproduction in this species.
It is known that the closely related I. icterus produces 3 eggs per clutch. It takes 21 to 23 days for its young to fledge. Once the young leave the nest they travel with their families for an unknown period of time. (Jaramillo and Burke, 1999)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- breeds once per year.
- Breeding season
- The breeding season for occurs in February.
There is not a significant amount of information about the extent of parental investment in. However, it is known that before breeding this species is either found alone, or with its mate, but once it breeds it is found in a group with its family. This particular characteristic of may be an indication of the extent of its parental investment.
Parental investment in this species also includes providing yolk to the egg and providing a nest for the offspring. (Jaramillo and Burke, 1999)is known to steal nests which are used as shelter for its offspring.
There is no record of the lifespan of campo troupials.
There are both male and female songs in this species, and the breeding season is characterized by a great deal of singing. While singing this bird also exhibits a physical display that is made up of an extended neck, raised tail, downward pointed bill, and display of neck feathers. Similar to some other birds, this species makes notable swishing sounds as it flies.
Similar to other troupials, Anumbius annumbi) and caatinga cacholotes (Pseudoseisura cristata). It has also been found to use nests built by great kiskadees (Pitangus sulphuratus) and rufous horneros (Furnarius rufus). (Jaramillo and Burke, 1999)is a “nest pirate.” It settles into abandoned nests or takes over nests that belong to other birds. Campo troupials prefer domed stick nests built by firewood-gatherers (
There is no available information on the home range of (Jaramillo and Burke, 1999); however, it is known that this species does not seasonally migrate.
Communication and Perception
Like other species of birds, Icterus species, and is composed of simple whistled phrases. However, compared to the songs of I. croconotus, the songs of are longer. In addition to their characteristic songs, caged members of this species can be taught different tunes. It is common practice in Brazil for owners of this bird to teach it the Brazilian National Anthem!communicates through sounds, specifically songs. Its songs are similar to that of other
- Primary Diet
- Animal Foods
- Plant Foods
There are no identified predators of.
Campo troupials are nest pirates. They not only move into abandoned nests but also take over occupied nests. Orange-backed troupials do the same, and that species may even kill the occupants of the nests during the invasion. Regardless, campo troupials likely have a negative effect on populations of other bird species such as: firewood-gatherers, rufous cacholotes, great kiskadees, and rufous horneros.
Even though they are nest pirates, campo troupials are occasionally host to nest parasites such as shiny cowbirds.
As the diet of campo troupials includes fruits, these birds may disperse seeds as they forage. (Jaramillo and Burke, 1999)
- shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
- pet trade
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There is no information suggesting that this species has a negative impact on humans.
Currently the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) lists (Alves, et al., 2009)as least concern given it's wide geographic range and stable population size. However, is prevalently hunted in the Caatinga zone in Brazil. There have been calls to place stricter regulations on the hunting or capturing of and other birds living in the region.
The information present in the literature about the species I. icterus or simply neglects it. As a result presents an interesting case study in where taxonomists draw species boundaries.is limited, in part because it has not yet been studied much as a separate species. The majority of the literature treats it as a subspecies within
The best available source that not only recognizes I. icterus and I. croconotus, have been categorized throughout history.as a species but also has an extensive account on the related species is Jaramillo and Burke’s 1999 “New World Blackbirds: The Icterids.” Other sources are contradictory when it comes to the acknowledgment of as a species. There is a recognizable pattern in the literature that shows how this species and its two other closely related species,
During the late 1800s and early 1900s I. icterus, , and I. croconotus were originally described as three separate species. Sclater (1886) recognizes and I. croconotus as distinct species. Bond (1953) claims that and I. croconotus are two entirely different species. Ridgway (1902) treats the Troupial Complex as three separate species as well.
Later these three species were all lumped into a single species, I. icterus. In other words they were classified as I. i. croconotus, I. i. jamacaii, and I. i. icterus! Ridgely and Tudor (1989) claim that these birds form three main groups and that although I. icterus and are geographically separate they should be considered as one species. Sibley and Monroe (1990) name I. i. icterus and I. i. jamacaii, and do not separate I. croconotus. Three years later, Monroe and Sibley (1993) list and I. croconotus as subspecies within I. icterus. Hilty (2003) also treats and I. croconotus as subspecies within I. icterus.
Since the late 1990s the three species have generally been separated. Many other oriole species that had been lumped during the 1960s to 1980s are also now considered separate species (e.g. Baltimore Oriole, Icterus galbula, and Bullock’s Oriole, Icterus abeillei).
Although there has been decades of inconsistency in the classification of these three species, there is an emerging consensus among the most recent sources that I. icterus, I. croconotus, and are three separate species. (Bond, 1953; Clements, 2007; Hilty, 2003; Jaramillo and Burke, 1999; Monroe and Sibley, 1993; Perlo, 2009; Ridgely and Tudor, 1989; Ridgway, 1902; Sclater, 1886; Sibley and Monroe, 1990; Tudor and Ridgely, 2009)
Leila Bahmani Kazerooni (author), University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Kevin Omland (editor), University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Rachelle Sterling (editor), Special Projects.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
to jointly display, usually with sounds in a highly coordinated fashion, at the same time as one other individual of the same species, often a mate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
- male parental care
parental care is carried out by males
imitates a communication signal or appearance of another kind of organism
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
- pet trade
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
- scrub forest
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
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Hilty, S. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Hofmann, C., T. Cronin, K. Omland. 2008. Evolution of sexual dichromatism. 1. Convergent losses of elaborate female coloration in New World orioles (Icterus species). The Auk, 125: 783-785.
Jaramillo, A., P. Burke. 1999. New World Blackbirds The Icterids. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Monroe, B., C. Sibley. 1993. A World Checklist of Birds. United States: Yale University Press.
Omland, K., S. Lanyon, S. Fritz. 1999. A Molecular Phylogeny of the New World Orieles (Icterus): The Importance of Dense Taxon Sampling. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 12/2: 235.
Perlo, B. 2009. A Field Guide To The Birds of Brazil. New York: Oxford University Press.
Price, J., N. Friedman, K. Omland. 2007. Song and plumage evolution in the New World orioles (Icterus) show similar lability and convergence in patterns. Evolution: Internation Journal of Organic Evolution, 61/4: 850.
Price, J., S. Lanyon, K. Omland. 2009. Losses of female song with changes from tropical. Proceedings of The Royal Society Biology, 276: 1971.
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Ridgway, R. 1902. The birds of North and middle America: A descriptive catalogue of the higher groups, genera, species and subspecies of birds known to occur in North America, from the Arctic lands to the Isthmus of Panama, the West Indies and other islands of the Caribbean Sea, and the Galapagos Archipelago. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 50: 257.
Sclater, P. 1886. Catalogue of The Passeriformes or Perching Birds in The Collection of The British Museum. London: Adamant Media Corporation.
Sibley, C., B. Monroe. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. United States of America: Yale University.
Tudor, G., R. Ridgely. 2009. Field Guide To The Songbirds of South America The Passerines. United States: Universtiy of Texas Press.