- Aquatic Biomes
- Range depth
- 0 to 5000 m
- 0.00 to 16404.20 ft
- Average depth
- 200-4000 m
The thimble-shaped umbrella has a width of 16 mm and a height ranging from 13 to 20 mm.
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range length
- 13 to 20 mm
- 0.51 to 0.79 in
scyphozoans. This undergoes metamorphosis, with two body forms: an adult, dominant medusa form and a larval, flower-like polyp form. After the eggs are fertilized, early embryonic development of zygotes begins inside the female. Small, ciliated planula larvae form and swim from the female back into the water. After several days the larvae settle and attach themselves to a hard, sedentary structure on the sea floor and undergo scyphistoma. During scyphistoma, the planula larvae gradually transform into polyps. Eventually, the fully developed polyps undergo strobilation, developing a stack of saucerlike buds (a larval stage). Each saucerlike bud develops into a tiny jellyfish, breaks off from the stack, and becomes free swimming young ephyra jellyfish. After a few weeks, the young ephyrae will grow into adult medusae jellyfish, completing the life cycle. (Hickman, et al., 2009; Whitaker, et al., 2006)follows the typical life cycle of all
The polyp form of (Calder, 2009)has dormant stages. Also, polyps can reproduce asexually to form polyp colonies, rather than complete growth to the adult medusa form. These unique life cycle characteristics of the polyp form make it difficult to determine the exact growth and life cycle of an individual planula larva.
seasonally forms aggregations, which assists in finding mates. Aggregation formation increases sperm concentration and improves reproductive success. In March and April, large aggregations, 500 to 1000000 square meters, have been recorded in the Atlantic Ocean and Carribean Sea.
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
Seasonal breeding begins in the spring and early summer months, when mature (Jamison, 2007)form aggregations in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The sexually reproductive jellyfish accumulate on hard surfaces, floats, and pilings, zygotes form, and planula larvae form, settle, and undergo scyphistoma. By late summer, the polyps grow and undergo strobilation, then ephyrae buds break off to become free-swimming young jellyfish.
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- breed seasonally in large swarms.
- Breeding season
- Medusae form patches in spring and early summer, and become young ephyra buds by late summer.
- Parental Investment
- no parental involvement
The lifespan of a typical jellyfish is a few months; however, specific information on the longevity of (Whitaker, et al., 2006)is not known.
- Typical lifespan
- 0 to 6 months
- Typical lifespan
can form sessile, asexual, colonial polyps or motile, sexual, solitary medusae. The mature medusa form of moves by way of typical jellyfish bell pulsation.
Communication and Perception
No form of communication amonghas been reported.
The primary prey of copepods and barnacle larvae. (Jamison, 2007)consists of crustacean plankton, including
also relies on zooxanthellae in feeding, as these endosymbiotic algae can produce organic food from carbon dioxide in photosynthesis.
- Primary Diet
- Animal Foods
- aquatic crustaceans
- other marine invertebrates
- Plant Foods
Spadefish, sunfish, sea turtles and other marine organisms prey onmedusa.
The medusa and polyp of (Arai, 1997)also use chemical stimuli to sense behaviors of their predators.
Aggregations of symbiotic zooxanthellae algae cover the subumbrella of. They expand over the subumbrella's surface during the day, producing organic food from carbon dioxide in photosynthesis and conducting nitrogen assimilation, then contract in the evening.
The ratio of oxygen production (P) by zooxanthellae to oxygen consumption (C) by the medusa is 1.5 to 1.8. This means that the symbiotic photosynthesis not only meets the respiration needs of the zooxanthellae and the jellyfish, but also provides extra energy that can be used towards growth and reproduction of the (Arai, 1997; Fautin, 2004)medusa. This symbiotic relationship is necessary for these jellyfish to thrive.
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There are no known positive effects ofon humans.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Seabather's Eruption (SBE) is an adverse effect ofplanula larva, ephyra, or medusa on humans. becomes trapped underneath the swimsuits of Atlantic Ocean swimmers and discharges venom. This discharge causes a hypersensitive, itchy, bumpy rash on the skin of the swimmer, underneath the swimsuit. This irritation caused by occurs independent of age, sex, and race, although symptoms tend to be more severe in children than adults. SBE has never been reported to have caused death.
- Negative Impacts
- bites or stings
Ocean pollution can affect the populations of (Arai, 1997). Eutrophication may be caused by nutrients from agricultural lands and domestic sewage. Mortality may be caused by hydrocarbons and heavy metals.
Occasionally, it is questioned if Beroida, Phylum Ctenophora because its "Sea thimble" body structure resembles that of comb jellies. Proper classification of is Family Linuchidae, Order Coronatae, or Class Scyphozoa, Phylum Cnidaria, Kingdom Animalia. (Arai, 1997)belongs to the Order
Current studies show scyphozoans are one of the first metazoans to develop ovarian accessory cells during their reproductive evolution. This scyphozoan ovarian morphology phylogenetically links Scyphozoa closer to Anthozoa than to Hydrozoa. (Eckelbarger and Larson, 1992)
Mary Kay DuBay (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects.
- Atlantic Ocean
the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
reproduction that is not sexual; that is, reproduction that does not include recombining the genotypes of two parents
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
used loosely to describe any group of organisms living together or in close proximity to each other - for example nesting shorebirds that live in large colonies. More specifically refers to a group of organisms in which members act as specialized subunits (a continuous, modular society) - as in clonal organisms.
- colonial growth
animals that grow in groups of the same species, often refers to animals which are not mobile, such as corals.
a period of time when growth or development is suspended in insects and other invertebrates, it can usually only be ended the appropriate environmental stimulus.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
generally wanders from place to place, usually within a well-defined range.
An aquatic biome consisting of the open ocean, far from land, does not include sea bottom (benthic zone).
an animal that mainly eats plankton
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
- radial symmetry
a form of body symmetry in which the parts of an animal are arranged concentrically around a central oral/aboral axis and more than one imaginary plane through this axis results in halves that are mirror-images of each other. Examples are cnidarians (Phylum Cnidaria, jellyfish, anemones, and corals).
- saltwater or marine
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
non-motile; permanently attached at the base.
Attached to substratum and moving little or not at all. Synapomorphy of the Anthozoa
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
an animal which has an organ capable of injecting a poisonous substance into a wound (for example, scorpions, jellyfish, and rattlesnakes).
uses sight to communicate
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
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