Pfeffer's flamboyant cuttlefish, (Reid, 2005), is found in Tropical Indo-Pacific oceans, especially along the coast of northern Australia, western Australia, and across to the southern edge of New Guinea.
- Other Habitat Features
- intertidal or littoral
- Range depth
- 3 to 86 m
- 9.84 to 282.15 ft
is a small cephalopod with a dark brown base color. This cuttlefish has overlaying patterns of white and yellow and its arms are purple-pink. The skin contains many chromatophores, which are pigment cells that can be manipulated to change colors. Females and males have similar colors except when spawning.
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range length
- 60 (high) mm
- 2.36 (high) in
The eggs initially are round and white, and become clear as the egg develops. Development timing depends on water temperature. (Reid, 2005)
- Development - Life Cycle
The females generally mate with more than one male. Sometimes male cuttlefish may spray water into the female's buccal area to clear out spermatophores from previous mates. (Kaufmann, 2007)
- Mating System
Males will put on colorful displays to attract females. Some males may change color to look like a female to avoid a more aggressive male, but gain access to a female.
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Cuttlefish breed six to eight weeks in the spring.
The females lay eggs in places that hide them from predators, but there is no parental care post-hatching as cuttlefish die after spawning. (Norman, 2007)
- Parental Investment
The lifespan of (Reid, 2005)is estimated to be between 18 and 24 months based on knowledge of other species in the same family. However, many females do not survive post-spawning. is rarely held in captivity, and therefore, its lifespan in captivity has not been described.
The home range has not been determined for this species.
Communication and Perception
Cuttlefish in general have a well-developed brain that can see, smell, and sense sound waves. The cuttlefish will change colors in response to its environment, either to lure in prey or avoid predators. Males may put on displays to attract a female. Some cuttlefish are able to go through mazes through use of visual cues.
Cuttlefish also have a well developed eye which can detect polarized light, but it is likely color-blind. Reshaping the eye allows it to focus on specific objects. ("Cephalopods: Color Change and Disguise", 2008; Kaufmann, 2007; Norman, 2007)
- Animal Foods
- aquatic crustaceans
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Currently, there are no known positive effects of (Norman, 2007)on humans. However, it has recently been discovered that the venom it possesses is of a new class that may possibly have uses in medicine.
- Positive Impacts
- source of medicine or drug
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Hapolochlaena maculosa. The venom is very toxic and it may possibly be able to quickly kill an adult human. (Norman, 2007)is one of only three known venomous species of cephalopods. The venom that contains is shown to have similar lethal effects as that of the blue-ringed octopus,
- Negative Impacts
- bites or stings
There has been little or no research into the status ofin the wild.
Chandni N. Patel (author), Rutgers University, Michael J. Smith (author), Rutgers University, David V. Howe (editor), Rutgers University, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects.
Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.
- Pacific Ocean
body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.
uses sound to communicate
having coloration that serves a protective function for the animal, usually used to refer to animals with colors that warn predators of their toxicity. For example: animals with bright red or yellow coloration are often toxic or distasteful.
Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. see also oceanic vent.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
- intertidal or littoral
the area of shoreline influenced mainly by the tides, between the highest and lowest reaches of the tide. An aquatic habitat.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an animal that mainly eats fish
- polarized light
light waves that are oriented in particular direction. For example, light reflected off of water has waves vibrating horizontally. Some animals, such as bees, can detect which way light is polarized and use that information. People cannot, unless they use special equipment.
Referring to a mating system in which a female mates with several males during one breeding season (compare polygynous).
structure produced by the calcium carbonate skeletons of coral polyps (Class Anthozoa). Coral reefs are found in warm, shallow oceans with low nutrient availability. They form the basis for rich communities of other invertebrates, plants, fish, and protists. The polyps live only on the reef surface. Because they depend on symbiotic photosynthetic algae, zooxanthellae, they cannot live where light does not penetrate.
- saltwater or marine
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
an animal which has an organ capable of injecting a poisonous substance into a wound (for example, scorpions, jellyfish, and rattlesnakes).
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
Smithsonian National Zoological Park. 2008. "Cephalopods: Color Change and Disguise" (On-line). Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Accessed December 20, 2010 at http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/Invertebrates/Facts/cephalopods/colordisguise.cfm.
Kaufmann, G. 2007. "Kings of Camouflage: Anatomy of a Cuttlefish" (On-line). NOVA. Accessed December 20, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/camo/anat-nf.html.
Mangold, K., M. Vecchione, R. Young. 1999. "Cephalopoda Glossary" (On-line). The Tree of Life Web Project. Accessed December 20, 2010 at http://www.tol.tolweb.org/notes/?note_id=587#hanchor.
Mangold, K., R. Young. 2008. "Metasepia" (On-line). The Tree of Life Web Project. Accessed December 20, 2010 at http://tolweb.org/Metasepia/20008/2008.04.21.
Norman, M. 2007. "Transcripts: Kings of Camoflauge" (On-line). NOVA. Accessed December 20, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/3404_camo.html.
Reid, A. 2005. Family Sepiidae. In P. Jereb & C.F.E. Roper, eds., Cephalopods of the World. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes, 1(4): 57-152. Accessed December 20, 2010 at http://marinebio.org/cephs/FAO/A0150e00.pdf.