Largemouth bass prefer quiet, clear waters with abundant vegetation (Iguchi and Matsuura, 2004). More specifically, they prefer shallow water that is usually no deeper than 2.5 meters, but they sometimes occupy deeper regions. Abundant vegetation is important because it allows bass to hide from their prey and provides protection against predators. Their environment is also made up of regions of clear waters where the bass' vision can be utilized to detect prey. (Hannon, 1996; Iguchi and Matsuura, 2004)
After hatching, which usually takes from three to four days, larvae form a school that moves with the close protection of a male adult. Once the individuals reach a length of almost three centimeters they leave the school to fend for themselves. At this point, the juveniles are approximately one month in age. From this point on their growth rate occurs at different speeds throughout their lives. During the first year, largemouth bass grow from 10 to 20 centimeters in length. Growth rate decreases every year, and after about five to six years there is very little change in length. (Scovell, 2005)
During the breeding season, each male prepares and builds a nest in shallow water. Nests are generally very crude in design. Once the nest is built a female swims near, and following an act of courtship, she lay her eggs in the nest. (Becker, 1983; Dewoody, et al., 2000)
Female largemouth bass do not invest anything more than their gametes to their offspring. Males begin their investment by constructing nests as well as defending these nests from intruders. Once the eggs hatch males remain with their broods and defend them against all predators. This continues usually for about a month. (Becker, 1983; Cooke, et al., 2001)
Largemouth bass live much longer in the wild than they do in captivity. The longest known lifespan of a wild largemouth bass was 23 years. The expected lifespan in the wild, though, is around 15 years. In captivity the longest lifespan recorded was 11 years, while the average age of death in captivity is around 6 years. (Becker, 1983; Boschung, et al., 2004; Carlander, 1977; Hubbs, 1964)
In the morning, largemouth bass tend to be very mobile and remain in deep waters (>2.5 m). In the afternoon, bass are sedentary and are usually found near a larger structure in deeper water. As the sun goes down largemouth bass become very mobile and move into shallow water. They remain active throughout the night with a slight decrease in mobility. Movement of bass usually correlates to movement of prey species. The home ranges of largemouth bass are relatively small and overlap with each other. Despite this, there is very little agonistic behavior between individuals and most interaction occurs during spawning. (Demers and McKinley, 1996; Sammons and Maceina, 2005)
Home range size for (Sammons and Maceina, 2005)ranges from 0.1 to 50 ha.
Largemouth bass perceive their environment through visual, auditory, tactile, and chemical means, as do most fish. (von der Emde, et al., 2004)
Larval and juvenile largemouth bass are prey species of yellow perch, walleye, northern pike, and muskellunge. As adults, largemouth bass can usually escape most predators. The primary predators on adult largemouth bass are humans. (Paulson and Hatch, 2002)
Largemouth bass are important game fish. They are one of the most popular fishes to catch and they continue to bring popularity to the sport of fishing. (Becker, 1983; Boschung, et al., 2004; Hubbs, 1964; Jackson, 2002; Paulson and Hatch, 2002; Scovell, 2005)
With its many introductions all over the world, (Jackson, 2002)has had many negative impacts on the native ecosystems. Two of the main impacts are the loss of biodiversity and the homogenization of ecosystems. Introduced poplulations also influence the densities of other sport fishes like trout and walleye. These issues are currently being studied and management plans are being implemented all over the world.
Allison Poor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
Ryan Curtis (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Kevin Wehrly (editor, instructor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
uses sound to communicate
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having a worldwide distribution. Found on all continents (except maybe Antarctica) and in all biogeographic provinces; or in all the major oceans (Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an animal that mainly eats fish
Referring to a mating system in which a female mates with several males during one breeding season (compare polygynous).
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
uses sight to communicate
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
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