Northern mockingbirds are distributed throughout North America, including Canada and Mexico. In fact, sightings have been reported as far off the coast as Hawaii (where they were introduced). However, northern mockingbirds are most commonly found in the southern regions of the United States and are most often sighted in Texas and Southern Florida. They breed from northern California, eastern Nebraska, southern Ontario and Atlantic Canada southward to southern Mexico. (Rylander, 2002; Texas Parks & Wildlife Department, 2003; Wild Birds Forever, Date Unknown)
Northern mockingbirds prefer open areas and forest edges. They are commonly found in residential areas, farmlands, roadsides, city parks, open grassy areas with thickets and brushy deserts. They require a tree or higher perch from which they can defend their territories. Northern mockingbirds occupy similar habitat year-round. (Nature of New England, 2003; Rylander, 2002; Texas Parks & Wildlife Department, 2003)
Northern mockingbirds are medium-sized birds with long legs and tails, and short, rounded wings. Males are larger than females, ranging from about 22 to 25.5 cm in length and averaging 51 g. Females range from 20.8 to 23.5 cm long and weigh an average of 47 g. Northern mockingbirds have gray-brown upperparts, with a large white patch on each wing and white outer retrices that are conspicuous in flight. Their black bills are long and somewhat decurved. Males and females are similar in appearance, with the exception of difference in size and slightly darker tail feathers on females. Juveniles are similar to adults, but have brown spots on their underparts. (Derrickson and Breitwisch, 1992; Rylander, 2002)
Northern mockingbirds are generally monogamous. Polygyny and bigamy seem to occur only rarely in this species. Breeding pairs remain together for the length of a breeding season, occasionally for life.
Males establish a territory and attempt to attract a female using courtship displays. They may chase the female through the territory while calling, or run along shrub and tree branches, showing her potential nest sites. Males also perform a flight display, which shows off their white wing patches. In the flight display, males sing continuously while flying a few meters into the air and then parachuting slowly back down. (Derrickson and Breitwisch, 1992; Holoweb, 2001; Rylander, 2002)
Northern mockingbirds breed in spring and early summer. Their nests are bulky and cup-like and are made of twigs, cotton, dry leaves, stems, paper, grass and other organic material. Nests are built in shrubs and trees anywhere from one to fifty feet off of the ground. After mating, the female lays two to six eggs (average 4 eggs), which are approximately 24 by 18 mm in size. The eggs are usually a blue to greenish color and may have several brown or reddish spots. Female mockingbirds are the sole incubators of the eggs. The eggs hatch after 11 to 14 days. Though the chicks are altricial at hatching, they leave the nest after 10 to 12 days. When the young fledge, the female usually begins to build a new nest, and the male is active in teaching the young to fly as well as continuing to feed them. The fledglings are independent in 10 to 15 days and reach sexual maturity in one year. Northern mockingbirds can raise 2 to 4 broods a year. (Derrickson and Breitwisch, 1992; Holoweb, 2001; Rylander, 2002)
Females incubate the eggs, males do not. However, when the eggs hatch, the female and male are both active in feeding and protecting the altricial young. After the chicks fledge, the female begins to build a new nest for a second brood. During this time, the males teach the young to fly and continue to feed them. (Derrickson and Breitwisch, 1992; Gough, et al., 1998; Sprott and Mazzotti, 2001)
Northern mockingbirds are perhaps best known for their remarkable singing abilities. This species can perform at least 39 songs as well as 50 call notes. Northern mockingbirds also have the ability to mimic sounds such as dogs barking or the songs of other birds.
Northern mockingbirds are solitary and territorial. During the nesting season, they are often very aggressive; they often attack other animals in defense of their territory, including animals as large as cats, dogs and humans
Northern mockingbirds are diurnal. They are also partially migratory. Most individuals that breed in the northern part of the range migrate south for the winter. Those that nest in the southern part of the range are typically year-round residents. (Derrickson and Breitwisch, 1992; Texas Parks & Wildlife Department, 2003)
We do not have information on home range for this species at this time.
Northern mockingbirds communicate primarily using song. They can perform at least 39 different songs as well as 50 other call notes. They also have the ability to mimic certain sounds such as dogs barking, pianos, sirens and squeaky gates. Song is also an essential part in mating. Males use their song to attract mates and to mark their territory. They sing often, both during the night and day.
Northern mockingbirds also use visual cues to communicate. For example, males perform a “flight display” to attract and court a mate (see Reproduction: Mating Systems). This display integrates auditory and visual methods of communication. (Derrickson and Breitwisch, 1992; Rylander, 2002; Sprott and Mazzotti, 2001)
Northern mockingbirds are omnivores. Their primary food sources are insects, berries and seeds. Insects they eat include beetles (order Coleoptera), ants (order Hymenoptera), grasshoppers (order Orthoptera) and spiders (order Araneae). Plants that are included in their diets are: holly, mulberries, raspberries, dogwood, brambles, grapes and figs. They also eat earthworms, and occasionally small crustaceans and small lizards.
Northern mockingbirds usually forage on the ground or while perched in a tree or shrub. They obtain water by drinking from puddles, river and lake edges and dew and rain droplets that collect on vegetation. (Derrickson and Breitwisch, 1992; Gough, et al., 1998; Holoweb, 2001; Rylander, 2002; Wild Birds Forever, Date Unknown)
When predators approach the nest, adults give alarm calls. Adults often also mob predators that enter a territory, sometimes striking them. (Derrickson and Breitwisch, 1992)
Northern mockingbirds play an important role as seed dispersers. They also impact populations of the insects they eat. Northern mockingbirds host several ectoparasites, including blowfly larvae (family Calliphoridae), fleas and mites. Finally, three cowbird species (genus Molothrus) brood parasitize northern mockingbirds. This means that these cowbird species lay eggs in the nests of northern mockingbirds that then raise the cowbird chicks. (Derrickson and Breitwisch, 1992; Sprott and Mazzotti, 2001)
Northern mockingbirds eat insects that humans often consider to be pests. These include beetles, ants, wasps and grasshoppers. They also disperse the seeds of many plants. Humans often study their unique behaviors and vast vocal repertoire. (Sprott and Mazzotti, 2001; Texas Parks & Wildlife Department, 2003)
Northern mockingbirds are often thought of as a nuisance because of their nocturnal singing, which may keep people up at night. Gardeners and farmers may also dislike these birds which often feed on fruits and vegetables, potentially damaging their crops. (Texas Parks & Wildlife Department, 2003)
Northern mockingbird populations are extensive and are not currently of conservation concern. There are an estimated 45,000,000 northern mockingbirds worldwide. This species is protected by the US Migratory Bird Treaty Act. (Karl, 2000)
Alaine Camfield (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Kari Kirschbaum (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Eve Breitmeyer (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
union of egg and spermatozoan
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds
imitates a communication signal or appearance of another kind of organism
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
islands that are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass, most typically these are volcanic islands.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
International Birding Information Resource Data. 2000. ""Northern Mockingbird"" (On-line). i-bird.com. Accessed March 20, 2003 at http://www.i-bird.com/.
Derrickson, K., R. Breitwisch. 1992. Northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos). Pp. 1-24 in A Poole, P Stettenheim, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 7. Philadelphia, PA: The Academy of Natural Sciences and Washington DC: The American Ornithologists Union.
Enature.com, 2003. "Birds: Northern Mockingbird" (On-line). Enature.com. Accessed April 15, 2004 at http://www.enature.com/fieldguide/showSpeciesGS.asp?sort=1&curGroupID=99&display=1&area=99&searchText=northern+mockingbird&curPageNum=1&recnum=BD0136.
Gough, G., J. Sauer, M. Iliff. 1998. "Patuxent Bird Identification Infocenter" (On-line). Accessed April 15, 2004 at http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/Infocenter/infocenter.html.
Holoweb, 2001. ""Northern Mockingbird: Mimus polyglottos" (On-line). Animals Identified on the Property or Known to Live in South East Minnesota. Accessed April 15, 2004 at http://www.holoweb.com/cannon/northergn.htm.
Karl, J. 2000. "Mimus polyglottos (Northern mockingbird)" (On-line). Accessed April 15, 2004 at http://imnh.isu.edu/digitalatlas/bio/birds/sngbrd/thrashr/nomo/nomo_mai.htm.
Nature of New England, 2003. ""Northern Mockingbird"" (On-line). Nature of New England. Accessed April 15, 2004 at http://www.nenature.com/NorthernMockingbird.htm.
Rylander, K. 2002. ""Northern Mockingbird"" (On-line). The Handbook of Texas Online. Accessed April 15, 2004 at http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/view/NN/tbn1.html.
Sprott, P., F. Mazzotti. 2001. "Mockingbirds (mimus polyglottos)" (On-line). Edis. Accessed April 15, 2004 at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/BODY_UW094.
Texas Parks & Wildlife Department, 2003. "Nature: Northern Mockingbird" (On-line). Texas Parks and Wildlife. Accessed April 15, 2004 at http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/factsheets/birds/mockingbird/mockingbird.htm.
Wild Birds Forever, Date Unknown. "Attracting the Northern Mockingbird" (On-line). Wild Birds Forever. Accessed April 15, 2004 at http://www.birdsforever.com/mock.html.