It appears that M. schreibersii for warmth in these caves. Miniopterus schreibersii is almost twice the size of , and heat the cave nicely for the young of both species. This could be why the range of is concurrent with the southern range of M. schreibersii. does not migrate to a winter roost. (Dwyer, 1968; Schulz, 1997)is reproductively dependent on
M. schreibersii, but is slightly smaller. It weighs 7 to 8 g and has a total length of 86 to 96 mm. Males and females do not exhibit any type of dimorphism; they are relatively the same size and weight, except for pregnant females who will gain 2 to 3 g. The tail is just as long as the head and body together (43 to 48 mm), and the haired patagium covers most of the tail. The forearm of this species is a total of 36 to 40 mm long. (Dwyer, 1968; Dwyer, 1983)is closely related to and looks much like
M. schreibersii, chooses specific sites for nurseries in which to rear young. These nurseries are used year after year, with both species often together in one site. gives birth in the summer month of December after a gestation period of about four months. (Dwyer, 1968; Dwyer, 1983), like
is a nocturnal animal, found living in colonies. A study done on ultrasonic detection of revealed that these bats fly in open areas as well as in forested areas. This is an indication that reside in edge habitats. It has been recorded flying up to 59.5 kilometers from the nursery site, but no more than that. In essence, this species tend to stay in the locality of their nursery roost.
is most active in spring, summer, and fall (mid-September to February and March to May). During the late winter months (July and August), enters torpor. There were only two events where clusters of this species appeared sluggish in the fall.
Dwyer (1968) found that activewould leave their roost when disturbed by a human observer. Sluggish bats would leave the roost after ten minutes up on entrance of an observer, and torpid bats remained inactive even a half hour after entrance of an observer.
The home range of (Dwyer, 1968)does not exceed 59.5 km from the nursery site.
As mammals, it is likely that they use some visual cues to communicate, as well as scent (especially the mother locating her young in the nursury cave). Tactile communication undoubtedly takes place in the somewhat crowded caves, as well as between mothers and their offspring and mates. (Nowak, 1999)
As individuals of (Dwyer, 1983)fly from their shelters, they will sometimes be snatched by pythons or ghost bats (one of the predatory bat species). Other common predators are owls and foxes. Many young may fall to the floor of the nursery roost and be overtaken by beetles that inhabit the area.
The most information that was found on the ecosystem roles ofis that they are predators of small bugs. They probably havve some effect on local insect populations. To the extent that they and are also prey for pythons, owls, ghost bats, foxes, and beetles, they may help provide nourishment for those predatory species.
is insectivorous, and likely consumes insect pests.
There was no information found on negative impact of.
Nancy Shefferly (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Casey Wilke (author), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Chris Yahnke (editor), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.
Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
used loosely to describe any group of organisms living together or in close proximity to each other - for example nesting shorebirds that live in large colonies. More specifically refers to a group of organisms in which members act as specialized subunits (a continuous, modular society) - as in clonal organisms.
The process by which an animal locates itself with respect to other animals and objects by emitting sound waves and sensing the pattern of the reflected sound waves.
At about the time a female gives birth (e.g. in most kangaroo species), she also becomes receptive and mates. Embryos produced at this mating develop only as far as a hollow ball of cells (the blastocyst) and then become quiescent, entering a state of suspended animation or embryonic diapause. The hormonal signal (prolactin) which blocks further development of the blastocyst is produced in response to the sucking stimulus from the young in the pouch. When sucking decreases as the young begins to eat other food and to leave the pouch, or if the young is lost from the pouch, the quiescent blastocyst resumes development, the embryo is born, and the cycle begins again. (Macdonald 1984)
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sound above the range of human hearing for either navigation or communication or both
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
Dwyer, P. 1983. Complete Book of Australian Mammals. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
Dwyer, P. 1968. The Biology, Origin, and Adaptation of Australian Journal of Zoology, 16: 49-68.(Chiroptera) in New South Wales.
Jones, G., C. Corben. 1993. Echolocation Calls from Six Species of Microchiropteran Bats in South-eastern Queensland. Australian - Mammology, 16/1: 35-38.
Kithener, D., A. Suyanto. 2002. Morphological Variation in Miniopterus pusillus and (sensu Hill 1992) in Southeastern Asia, New Guinea, and Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 21: 9-33.
Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Rhodes, M., L. Hall. 1997. Bats of Fraser Island. Australian Zoologist, 30: 346-350.
Schulz, M. 1997. The Little Bent-wing Bat Australian Zoologist, 30: 329.Roosting in a Tree Hollow.