- Other Geographic Terms
Pholcus phalangiodes can be found in undisturbed, low light locations. Some places one might encounter this spider are in basements, under stones, under ledges, and in caves. People most often associate these spiders with living on ceilings and in corners in homes. They make their webs large, loose, and flat, but they can make them in irregular shapes to fit into surrounding objects. Their webs are normally oriented horizontally. hangs upside down on the web it makes. (Emerton, 1902; Foelix, 1982; Jackman, 1997; Uhl, November 1998)
is pale yellow-brown except for a large gray patch in the center of the cephalothorax. The body and legs are almost translucent. These spiders are covered with fine gray hairs. The head is a darker color around the eyes. A translucent line marks the dorsal vessel. There are eight eyes: two small eyes in front of the two triads of larger eyes.
Females are seven to eight millimeters in length and males are six millimeters.
Because of the translucent quality of this animal, using a microscope it is possible to see the moving blood cells in the legs and body of a living animal. (Jackman, 1997)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- female larger
- Range length
- 6 to 8 mm
- 0.24 to 0.31 in
A mother (Stüber, 1999)watches over her newly hatched young (prenymphs) for about nine days until the prenymphs shed their skins to become little spiders. The young spiders then leave the maternal web, and go look for a place to build their own webs.
In studies done by Gabriele Uhl at the University of Bonn, male (Uhl, November 1998)seemed to be attracted to and to mate with larger females more often than smaller females. This may increase reproductive success for males, because large females produce more eggs than smaller females.
Before mating, a male spider deposits some sperm onto a little web, and then sucks it into a special cavity within his pedipalp. During mating, which can take several hours, the male deposits his sperm into the female's epigynum, which is an opening on the underside of her abdomen. Females can store the sperm in a special cavity at the beginning of the uterus, called the uterus externus, until it is time for her eggs to be fertilized. Timing of fertilization and laying depends on the availability of food. Because the sperm are stored for some period of time, it is possible for a female to mate again. If this occurs, the sperm from the two males mixes in the uterus externa. However, the sperm of the last male mated with has priority in fertilizing the eggs. This is because of a mechanism of sperm removal during mating. Males perform rhythmic movements of their intromittent organs during copulation, which results in extrusion of most of the sperm already in the uterus externa.
After a female lays her eggs, she wraps them in silk strands and carries the package in her chelicera (jaws), located on the underside of her body. (Emerton, 1902; Jackman, 1997; Stüber, 1999; Uhl, November 1998)
- Key Reproductive Features
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding season
- Peak breeding occurs between June and September.
The only parental care female (Stüber, 1999)offer their young is nine days of protection as the prenymphs finish developing into spiders.
- Parental Investment
- Range lifespan
- 3 (high) years
- Range lifespan
- Range lifespan
- 3 (high) years
- Range lifespan
When (Uhl, November 1998)is not mating, it is a solitary creature that work on catching food in its web.
Communication and Perception
Male spiders find a female spiders by tracking the pheromones she leaves. During mating, tactile communication is probably of some importance. (Jackman, 1997)
- Other Communication Modes
- Animal Foods
- terrestrial non-insect arthropods
- Anti-predator Adaptations
- Known Predators
Because their diet is primarily insects, these spiders play the important role of controlling the growth of insect populations. (Stüber, 1999)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
- controls pest population
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
These spiders often live inside houses, where humans do not normally want spiders and their webs. (Uhl, November 1998)
- Negative Impacts
- household pest
At this timeare not endangered or threatened, so there is no conservation underway (ESA).
Because one of the common names foris daddylongleg spider, it is often confused with the Harvestmen daddylong legs, which are a separate species that is not even a true spider. Also, despite the urban myth that the daddylongleg spider is the most poisonous spider in the world, there is no proof for this statement. It is thought that this rumor may have been started because kill and eat other spiders, including the Redback Spiders, whose venom can be fatal to humans. But to be able to kill the Redback spider, the need only to have a quicker bite, not be more venomous (Crew, Haudon).
Nancy Shefferly (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Anna Ferrick (author), Southwestern University, Stephanie Fabritius (editor), Southwestern University.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having a worldwide distribution. Found on all continents (except maybe Antarctica) and in all biogeographic provinces; or in all the major oceans (Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific.
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
Emerton, J. 1902. The Common Spiders of the United Stateds. Boston, U.S.A., and London: Ginn & Company, Publishers.
Foelix, R. 1982. Biology of Spiders. Cambridge, Massachusets, and London, England: Harvard University Press.
Jackman, J. 1997. A Field Guide ot Spiders & Scorpions of Texas. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.
Stüber, K. 1999. "Biology of *Pholcus phalangioides*" (On-line). Accessed October 2, 2001 at http://caliban.mpiz-koeln.mpg.de/~stueber/essays/pholcus/pholcus_phalangioides.html.
Uhl, G. November 1998. Mating Behavior in the Cellar Spider, Pholcus phalangioides. Animal Behavior, Volume 56 Issue 5: 1155-1159.