Least pipistrelles ( (Francis, et al., 2010)) are found throughout south and southeast Asia, from Afghanistan to China. THey are also found in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Borneo, the Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, and Indonesia.
Least Pipistrelles are found in a variety of habitats including forests, rural areas and urban areas. They inhabit secondary hill, montane or montane mossy forests in southeast Asia, in zones ranging from arid to humid. They roost in trees, leafy canopies, and in the walls or ceilings of buildings. They have been observed at elevations ranging from 800 to 1700 m above sea level. (Francis, et al., 2010)
- Other Habitat Features
- Range elevation
- 800 to 1700 m
- 2624.67 to 5577.43 ft
bat, ranging in length from 69 to 77 mm in length and ranging in mass from 3.2 to 4.2 g. It has dark brown fur, transitioning to paler fur on the venter. It has a broad muzzle and the ear and tragus are relatively short when compared to other species in this genus. Sexual dimorphism has not been reported in this species. (Francis, et al., 2010)is a very small
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range mass
- 3.2 to 4.2 g
- 0.11 to 0.15 oz
- Range length
- 69 to 77 mm
- 2.72 to 3.03 in
There is no information available regarding the mating system of Pipestrellus pipestrellus, is known to form maternity roosts, with breeding males defending territories. Courtship in P. pipistrellus includes specific flight patterns and olfactory cues, including pheromones produced by males. A trait common to bats in the family Vespertilionidae is delayed fertilization, which allows the female to postpone fertilization until well after mating, thus allowing births to be precisely timed to occur when resources are plentiful. ("Vesper Bats", 2011; Francis, et al., 2010; Russ, et al., 2005). Two separate breeding seasons exist for this species: one which occurs during February and March, and the other which occurs during July and August. These breeding seasons generally produce between one and three offspring. A close relative of ,
There is limited information available regarding the reproductive behavior of Pipistrellus subflavus has a gestational period that lasts 44 days. Pipistrellus subflavus pups have an average birth weight of 1.8 g and are weaned by 4 weeks of age and become independent between 4 and 5 weeks of age. Pipistrellus subflavus reaches sexual maturity between 3 and 11 months of age. (Fujita and Kunz, 1984; Hoying and Kunz, 1998). It breeds for two months at a time, twice a year from February to March and from July to August. Number of offspring per breeding cycle ranges from 1 to 3 pups, with an average of 2. The closely related
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- delayed fertilization
- Breeding interval
- P. tenuis breeds for two months at a time, twice a year.
- Breeding season
- February-March and July-August
- Range number of offspring
- 1 to 3
There is no information available regarding parental care in Pipistrellus subflavus has been observed moving young between roost sites and is also known to fly with young during foraging bouts. (Fujita and Kunz, 1984), however, the closely related
- Parental Investment
- female parental care
The average home range size of genus demonstrate considerable variation in home range size. For example, Pipistrellus pipistrellus has an observed home range of 1,526 ha, while P. pygmaeus has an average home range size of 487 ha. Both species change roost sites on a regular basis. (Nicholls and Racey, 2006)is unknown. However, other members of this
Communication and Perception
There is no information available regarding communication in Pipistrellus subflavus is known to communicate with young using a variety of clicks and tones. In addition, Pipistrellus pygmaeus exhibits distress through vocal signals. perceives its immediate environment via echolocation and olfactory cues. In general, bats have reduced vision. (Fujita and Kunz, 1984; Hoying and Kunz, 1998; Russ, et al., 2005). The closely related
- Communication Channels
coleopterans, hymenopterans, dipterans and lepidopterans. It uses echolocation to hunt its prey and sometimes is observed using its wings to bat its prey down before catching it in its mouth. (Francis, et al., 2010)is an insectivore, feeding on a wide variety of insects including
- Animal Foods
As an insectivore,likely helps controls insect pest populations throughout its geographic range. Parasites of this species have not been documented.
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
As an insectivore,helps controls insect pest populations, which likely helps reduce insect induced crop damage and disease transmission rates from insects to humans.
- Positive Impacts
- controls pest population
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
In urban and suburban settings,is known to roost in the walls and ceilings of buildings. As a result, this species can cause a great deal of damage to the buildings it roosts in.
- Negative Impacts
- household pest
Jenna Larson (author), Michigan State University, Barbara Lundrigan (editor), Michigan State University, John Berini (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
uses sound to communicate
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
used loosely to describe any group of organisms living together or in close proximity to each other - for example nesting shorebirds that live in large colonies. More specifically refers to a group of organisms in which members act as specialized subunits (a continuous, modular society) - as in clonal organisms.
active at dawn and dusk
- delayed fertilization
a substantial delay (longer than the minimum time required for sperm to travel to the egg) takes place between copulation and fertilization, used to describe female sperm storage.
The process by which an animal locates itself with respect to other animals and objects by emitting sound waves and sensing the pattern of the reflected sound waves.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
- scrub forest
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sound above the range of human hearing for either navigation or communication or both
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
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