- Terrestrial Biomes
- Average elevation
- 1676 m
- 5498.69 ft
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range length
- 11.4 to 20.6 cm
- 4.49 to 8.11 in
Little is known regarding the development of this species. Females lay eggs in moist, terrestrial burrows or crevasses in late spring or early summer. All development occurs within the eggs, thus there is no aquatic larval stage. The young emerge 2 to 3 months later as sub-adults. Juveniles measure around 20 mm in length at one year of age and are oftentimes found under logs. Juveniles become reproductively mature at 4 to 5 years old, at which time they measure 50 to 76 cm snout-vent length (SVL). (Beamer and Lannoo, 2010)
- Development - Life Cycle
During the spring, male (Beamer and Lannoo, 2010)search for female mates typically underneath logs. Once a male finds a female mate, he places his nasolabial grooves and mental glands against the female’s body. The male displays a foot dance in which he raises and lowers his rear limbs simultaneously or alternately. The male then moves towards the female’s head while repeatedly rubbing his nasolabial grooves on the female. Once the male reaches the female's head he rubs his mental gland over her head and nasolabial grooves. The male then places his head under her chin and attempts to pass beneath her, waving his tail as it passes under the female’s mouth. When the male stops moving forward, the female grabs on to his tail and then the pair move forward while the female is grasping onto the male. The pair continues to move forward until the spermatophore is deposited. No mate defense has been observed for this species.
- Mating System
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- White-spotted slimy salamanders breed once every other year.
- Breeding season
- White-spotted slimy salamanders breed from late spring to summer.
- Range number of offspring
- 6 to 36
- Range time to hatching
- 2 to 3 months
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 4 to 5 years
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 4 to 5 years
- Parental Investment
- female parental care
- Range lifespan
- 5 to 10 years
- Range lifespan
is a terrestrial species and completes its entire life cycle on land. It is also a lungless species and breaths through its skin and membranes of the mouth and throat. White-spotted slimy salamanders are named for their spotted appearance and defensive strategy of secreting a very sticky substance from its skin glands that is extremely difficult to remove.
White-spotted slimy salamanders are generally solitary, but will congregate under optimal cover objects to avoid dessication during dry periods. Females and juveniles are much more likely to share a cover object than multiple, territorial males.
White-spotted slimy salamanders may be active during the day or night, but are most active during rain events and at night. Little is known regarding migratory movements, but studies have shown that individuals move no more than 90 meters. Distance moved seems to correlate with age and more specifically, reproductive maturity. Juveniles move less than 6 m, whereas salamanders between 55 and 65 SVL moved the most. This length is most seen in individuals that have recently reached reproductive maturity and are likely moving in search of mates. (Beamer and Lannoo, 2010; "Northern Slimy Salamander", 2007)
Territory size is not well documented in this species, but males rarely will occupy the same cover object. The maximum recorded distance traveled for an individual is 91.5 m, but most adults do not move more than 9 m.
Communication and Perception
- Animal Foods
- terrestrial non-insect arthropods
- terrestrial worms
Two North American snakes are known predators of Thamnophis genus) and copperheads (Agkistrodon contortrix) feed on white-spotted slimy salamanders. All species of the Plethodon genus produce noxious skin secretions as predator defense. White-spotted slimy salamanders produce copious amounts of slime which often gum up a predator's mouth, giving the salamander a chance to escape. become immobile when physically contacted, making them less likely to become detected by visually oriented predators. (Beamer and Lannoo, 2010). Garter snakes (
- Known Predators
- Copperheads (Agkistrodon contortrix)
- Garter snakes (Thamnophis genus)
Cryptobia borreli, Eutrichomastix batrachorum, Haptophyra gigantean, Haptophyra michiganensis, Hexamastix batrachorum, Hexamitus intestinalis, Karotomorpha swezi, Prowazekella longifilis, Tririchomonas augusta, Brachycoelium hospitae, Capillaria inequalis, Cosmocercoides dukae, Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Oxyuris magnavulvaris, Acanthocephalus acutulus, and Hannemania dunni. (Hairston, 1987)impact their communities with their burrowing by contributing to the dynamics of the soil. They dig and break up the soil to increase aeration. White-spotted slimy salamanders also are host to many internal parasites including:
- Ecosystem Impact
- soil aeration
- Blood parasites (Cryptobia borreli)
- Intestinal parasites (Eutrichomastix batrachorum)
- Protazoan parasites (Haptophyra gigantea)
- Intestinal parasites (Haptophyra michiganensis)
- Intestinal parasites (Hexamastix batrachorum)
- Intestinal parasites (Hexamitus intestinalis)
- Intestinal parasites (Tririchomonas augusta)
- Intestinal parasites (Karotomorpha swezi)
- Intestinal parasites (Prowazekella longifilis)
- Intestinal parasites (Brachycoelium hospitae)
- Intestinal parasites (Capillaria inequalis)
- Intestinal parasites (Cosmocercoides dukae)
- Intestinal parasitess (Oxyuris magnavulvaris)
- Intestinal parasites (Oswaldocruzia pipiens)
- Parasitic worms (Acanthocephalus acutulus)
- Mites (Hannemania dunni)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There are no positive effects of (Beamer and Lannoo, 2010)on humans.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no adverse effects of (Beamer and Lannoo, 2010)on humans.
Stephen Wettstein (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Rachelle Sterling (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
- soil aeration
digs and breaks up soil so air and water can get in
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
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