- Other Geographic Terms
- island endemic
- Other Habitat Features
- Range elevation
- 1250 to 2900 m
- 4101.05 to 9514.44 ft
- Average elevation
- 2200 m
- 7217.85 ft
Mindanao gymnures are medium sized, ground dwellers with a body length of 130 to 150 mm. Their pelage is long, soft, and full. Dorsally their pelage is mostly gray mixed with coarser reddish brown hairs, while ventrally it is more hoary with some white and brown mixed in. Their ears are semi-naked and they have long whiskers. Their robust tail is about 1/3 of their body length (40 to 70 mm), moderately haired, and a buffy to purplish flesh color. Their pelage fades away to naked peach skin colored feet (hind food is 31 to 37 mm). Podogymnura aureospinula (found on Dinagat Island) is distringuished from by it's golden brown spiny dorsal pelage with black speckling. Podogymnura is closely related to Echinosorex; they share cranial and dental characteristics including a long rostrum and long, well-developed canine teeth. Podogymnura is smaller, has a shorter tail, and has less prominent temporal, sagittal, and nuchal crests. No reports on sexual dimorphism or mass measurements were found. Some pictures can be found at the Field Museum of Natural History webpage. ("ARCBC", 2006; Walker, 1999)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range length
- 130 to 150 mm
- 5.12 to 5.91 in
Mindanao gymnures are not well studied, no information on mating was found.
No information on reproduction could be found in the literature.
- Key Reproductive Features
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
Like all mammals, female Mindanao gymnures are expected to nurse and care for their young until they are weaned.
- Parental Investment
Almost nothing is known about the life history of this species. (Walker, 1991)
No information was found about behavior of Mindanao gymnures in the literature.
Communication and Perception
Their long whiskers give them good tactile sensation. Like other mammals, they are expected to use their sense of smell and chemical cues extensively.
- Communication Channels
Insects, worms, and possibly carrion seem to comprise the majority of their diet, although there was one report of herbivory. They have been caught in traps baited with worms, bird flesh, or even fried coconut coated with peanut butter. ("Wildlife Database", 2006; Rickart, et al., 2003; Walker, 1999)
- Animal Foods
- terrestrial worms
No information on predation was found.
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Humans benefit from their insect control.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known adverse effects ofon humans.
Mindanao gymnures are currently listed under the IUCN Red List as endangered because they occur only in a fragmented forested region on Mindanao Island, Philippines which is threatened by logging, slash and burn agriculture, and forest degradation. Heaney (1998) however argues that because of their occurrence in high elevation forests, which have comparatively little commercial value, forest degradation is not as great a threat. With their relative abundance in these areas, current populations should be stable. ("2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species", 2006; Heaney, 1998)
Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Andrew Rasmussen (author), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Chris Yahnke (editor, instructor), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
flesh of dead animals.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
- island endemic
animals that live only on an island or set of islands.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
2006. "2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed November 13, 2006 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/17828/summ.
2006. "ARCBC" (On-line). Asean Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation. Accessed December 01, 2006 at http://arcbc.org/cgi-bin/abiss.exe/spd?SID=88632&spd=10671&tx=MA.
2006. "Wildlife Database" (On-line). Accessed November 20, 2006 at http://www.cbmall-gateway.com/insectivores/mindanao_gymnure.html.
Durden, L., J. Beaucournu. 2000. The Flea Genus Sigmactenus: A New Species from Timor and new material from New Guinea and the Philippines. Journal of Parisitology, Vol. 86, No. 3: 432-437.
Heaney, L. 1998. A Synopsis of the Mammalian Fauna of the Philippine Islands. Chicago, IL USA: Field Museum of Natural History.
Heaney, L. 2001. Special Issue: Diversity Patterns in Small Mammals among Elevational Gradients. Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 10, No. 1: 15-39.
Rickart, E., L. Heaney, B. Tabaranza. 2003. A New Species of Limnomys from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 84, Iss. 4: 1443-1455.
Stone, D. 1995. Eurasian Insectivores and Tree Shrews - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
Walker, E. 1999. Walkers Mammals of the World. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press.
Walker, E. 1991. Walkers Mammals of the World. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press.
Wilson, D., D. Reeder. 1995. Mammal Species of the World. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.