Foraging methods vary in different life stages of (Sazima and Machado, 1990). During the day, smaller fish (80-110 mm) search for food. At dawn, late afternoon, and early evening the larger fish (150-240 mm) search for food. groups gather in vegetation in order to wait for prey. The group typically includes around 20-30 fishes. In the daytime can be seen lurking or ambushing prey. Two other methods for obtaining food employed by are chasing and scavenging. The hunting mode of chasing was seen after the fish lie and wait in vegetation. The fish then proceed to swim after and eat the fish. has a wide variety of food in its diet, including fins, scales, fish (pieces and whole), insects, snails, and plants. The plant intake of the animal may be an active way of gaining food supplies while scanning for prey.
William Fink (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
Brian Putz (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
flesh of dead animals.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
Fink, W. 1993. Revision of the Piranha Genus Pygocentrus (Teleostei, Characiformes). Copeia, 3: 665-686.
Fuller, P., L. Nico, J. Williams. 1999. Nonindigenous Fishes Introduced into Inland Waters of the United States. Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society.
Saint-Paul, U., J. Zuanon, M. Correa, M. Garcia, N. Fabre. March 2000. Fish Communities in Central Amazonian White- and Blackwater floodplains. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 57: 235-250.
Sazima, I., F. Machado. 1990. Underwater Observations of Piranhas in Western Brazil. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 28: 17-31.
Uetanabaro, M., T. Wang, A. Abe. 1993. Breeding Behaviour of the Red-Bellied Piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri, in nature. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 38: 369-371.