Common chuckwallas are found in deserts, where the air is hot and dry (9 to 45 degrees Celsius). They are found in deserts with rocks and crevices for hiding, such as areas of past lava flows, rocky hillsides, and outcrops. They use underground burrows and crevices for hibernation in the winter. They inhabit island and coastal environments. These lizards require a moderate amount of vegetation and foliage in the habitat in order to sustain themselves. Common chuckwallas can be found between sea level and 1400 m elevation. (Cliff, 1958; Hammerson, 2007; Johnson, 1965; Montanucci, 1997)
- Terrestrial Biomes
- desert or dune
- Range elevation
- 1400 (high) m
- 4593.18 (high) ft
- Range depth
- 0 (low) m
- 0.00 (low) ft
Common chuckwallas are stout lizards with baggy skin folds near the neck, shoulders, and stomach. The skin is covered in hard scales, with the largest scales located between the nose and eyes. They have five digits on each limb and the tail is rounded at the tip. Head color can vary from dark brown and grey to dark yellow. Color variation depends on geographic location, temperature, surroundings, and mood. Tails are thicker near the body and taper toward the tip. Males are slightly larger than females and, in some cases, have different scale patterns and head shapes. Females may have a slightly narrower snout and head. There is also variation in color, young and females have lighter markings than males. Average weight is 245 grams (range from 24 to 315 grams), though males are usually heavier than females. Average head length is 35.5 mm with the greatest head width being 33.2 mm. Average snout-vent length is 162 mm (range from 80 to 197 mm) and length of tail averages 182 mm (Cliff, 1958). Almost half of the length is comprised of the tail. (Cliff, 1958; Friends of the Rosamond Gifford Zoo Education Volunteers, 2008; Hollingsworth, 1998; Johnson, 1965)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- male larger
- sexes colored or patterned differently
- male more colorful
- sexes shaped differently
- Range mass
- 24 to 315 g
- 0.85 to 11.10 oz
- Average mass
- 245 g
- 8.63 oz
- Range length
- 80 to 197 mm
- 3.15 to 7.76 in
- Average length
- 162 mm
- 6.38 in
After a gestation period of one month, females lay eggs in an underground nest. After common chuckwallas hatch from their egg, they begin growing at a rate of about 17 mm a year. Common chuckwallas leave their young after they hatch and the young are independent at that point. They reach sexual maturity at around ages 2 or 3. Growing to adult size takes about 25 years, after which they continue to grow but at a significantly decreased rate of about 5.5 mm a year. Growth rate is correlated with abundance of food. Common chuckwallas grow more in the spring and summer when the temperature is high and food is plentiful. Molting, or shedding of the epidermis, also occurs in the spring when growth rate is high. (Hammerson, 2007; Johnson, 1965)
- Development - Life Cycle
- indeterminate growth
Common chuckwalla courtship is comprised of males enticing females by size or persistence. Usually males have multiple females living in their territory and he mates with them. Male chuckwallas use head-bobbing, licking, circling, nudging, jaw-rubbing, and other methods to persuade females to mate. Females allow copulation if they determine the male is desired, males may assert themselves if they are large and forceful. During copulation, males use their jaws to grasp females by the loose skin on their nape. Mating usually takes place in the early spring after hibernation. Both sexes have multiple partners year to year. Males compete for females by biting and head-knocking. (Montanucci, 1997; Nagy, 1973)
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
Common chuckwallas breed between April and August when food is most abundant. When females are receptive, their ovaries become enlarged. Males produce sperm each year while females produce eggs every other year, on average. Males reach sexual maturity when they reach a 125 mm snout-vent length, or at about 2 years old. Females reach sexual maturity at the same length, but may take 2 to 3 years to reach that length. Average clutch size per breeding season varies from 5 to 16 eggs and the annual reproductive frequency of each female varies greatly from year to year depending on food availability and rainfall. Some females produce 2 separate broods, others produce none. Females incubate the eggs until they hatch. The incubation period lasts about 35 days (range 33 to 50 days). The birth mass range of the eggs is 6.0 to 9.6 grams. Larger females produce clutches more frequently than smaller females. However, smaller females may reproduce in consecutive years. (Friends of the Rosamond Gifford Zoo Education Volunteers, 2008; Johnson, 1965; Montanucci, 1997)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Common chuckwallas may not breed every year, but they breed in years of heavy rainfall and abundant food.
- Breeding season
- Breeding takes place from April to August.
- Range number of offspring
- 5 to 16
- Average number of offspring
- Range gestation period
- 33 to 50 days
- Average gestation period
- 35 days
- Average time to independence
- immediate minutes
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 2 to 3 years
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 2-3 years
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 2 years
Females prepare an underground nest in an area with dry soil that is unlikely to be disturbed. Females protect their eggs from predators and other threats while they incubate. However, after hatching, females no longer care for their young. Males do not provide parental care. (Friends of the Rosamond Gifford Zoo Education Volunteers, 2008; Hammerson, 2007; Johnson, 1965)
- Parental Investment
- female parental care
Common chuckwallas generally live 10 years or more, given suitable conditions, limited predation, and adequate food availability. The average lifespan in the wild is estimated to be about 15 years. Although there is considerable variability from year to year, on average, first year survivorship is estimated at 38%. Egg mortality causes the greatest impact on survivorship less than one year old. Those that survive past one year experience a mean survivorship of 75% per year. The oldest known chuckwalla in the wild was 30 years old. The oldest common chuckwalla in captivity lived to 65 years old. (Abts, 1987; Friends of the Rosamond Gifford Zoo Education Volunteers, 2008; Johnson, 1965; Montanucci, 1997; Sullivan and Sullivan, 2008)
- Range lifespan
- 30 (high) years
- Range lifespan
- Range lifespan
- 65 (high) years
- Range lifespan
- Average lifespan
- 15 years
- Average lifespan
Common chuckwallas are mainly solitary and diurnal. They leave rock shelters during the day to eat foliage, but generally remain close to their shelters. They are active from mid-March to mid-August, but may aestivate in the summer months when food is scarce. From November through March they may go through brumation (similar to hibernation, but observed in ectotherms). They are active for about 8 hours each day, usually between 06:30 and 19:00. Common chuckwallas are most active from 9:15 to 11:30. To prevent overheating, they move in and out of the shade and assume different orientations towards the sun. Most of their time is spent basking on rocks when they are not looking for food. They retreat into crevices and shallow holes during the hottest portion of the day and use these crevices to avoid predators. Males are territorial and male fighting occurs over territory and females. Females are not hostile towards each other but hierarchies for both males and females are based on size. (Johnson, 1965; Montanucci, 1997; Nagy, 1973)
- Range territory size
- 1000 to 7000 m^2
- Average territory size
- 3500 m^2
Male home ranges (0.57 ha) are typically larger than female home ranges (0.17 ha) and do not overlap with those of other males. Females have smaller home ranges, so that male home ranges generally overlap with those of several females. Female home ranges may overlap. According to a 7-year study in the Colorado Desert of southwestern California, densities ranged from 15 to 30 individuals per hectare. Home range sizes do not change from spring to summer. (Abts, 1987; Hammerson, 2007; Hollingsworth, 1998)
Communication and Perception
There is little information on communication and perception in common chuckwallas. Because they are solitary, there is little intraspecific communication, except when males compete for access to territory or females for mating. Most communication is limited to mating and courtship. Males fight other males and vigorously bob their heads to impress females. Females assess males based on their movements, nudging, and jaw-rubbing before mating. When looking for food, chuckwallas use the lingual vomeronasal system to decide what is food and what is not based on the chemical signals from the tongue. They have acute eyesight and perceive movement within 30 m. Their sense of hearing is not well-developed. (Cooper and Al-johany, 2002; Johnson, 1965; Montanucci, 1997; Sullivan and Kwiatkowski, 2007)
- Other Communication Modes
- scent marks
Common chuckwallas are herbivores, feeding on perennial and annual plants. Their diets are generally high in fiber and low in fat and protein. Annuals comprise 60% of their diet in the summer months, while perennials comprise 40%. When annuals die in the winter, perennials become their main source of plant food. They have been reported eating leaves and the fruit of creosote bushes (Larrea tridentata) in the summer months, as well as some insects that reside on the vegetation they eat. Browneyes (Oenothera clavaeformis) and desert ragweed (Franseria dumosa) are the main plants in the chuckwalla diet. In captivity they are fed various greens, vegetables, fruits, and flowers. They obtain water from the plants they eat and produce it metabolically. (Friends of the Rosamond Gifford Zoo Education Volunteers, 2008; Johnson, 1965; Montanucci, 1997)
- Animal Foods
- Plant Foods
Common chuckwallas are experts at detecting and evading predators. Their main adaptation is to hide in crevices and rocks when they feel threatened or scared. Tight holes and crevices between rocks are inaccessible to larger predators and offer a defensive advantage against most larger mammals and birds, while snakes and other reptiles may be able to fit into them. Common chuckwallas inflate their lungs in order to wedge themselves even tighter against the rocks and they position the tail towards the crevice opening and against their body for added protection. Their neutral-colored scales serve as camouflage in the warm browns, tans, and greys of the desert landscape. Predators include red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), coyotes (Canis latrans), and Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus). (Cooper Jr., et al., 2000; Hollingsworth, 1998)
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Common chuckwallas are herbivorous, feeding on plants and occasional insects. Through fecal deposits and plant clearing, they impact diversity in the habitats they occupy. Important predators of common chuckwallas are red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), coyotes (Canis latrans), and Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus). Plasmodium mexicanum (Saurian Malarial Parasite) and mite species (Hirstiella pyriformis and Hirstiella trombidiiformis) live in and on common chuckwallas. (Montanucci, 1997; Nagy, 1973)
- Saurian malarial parasites (Plasmodium mexicanum)
- mites (Hirstiella pyriformis)
- mites (Hirstiella trombidiiformis)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Humans keep chuckwallas as pets. Currently, Nevada is the only state that allows commercial pet collection because of the large sustaining population. Illegal trade of common chuckwallas does occur in states that do not permit reptile collection. A small number of common chuckwallas are collected for universities and biological scientific research. (Brodie, Jr, et al., 2003; Montanucci, 1997; Nagy, 1973)
- Positive Impacts
- pet trade
- research and education
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known adverse effects of common chuckwallas on humans. They are solitary animals that are easily intimidated and scared. Generally, they are rarely seen by humans and don't cause any disturbances. (Nagy, 1973)
Common chuckwalla populations are protected by national parks and naturally protected due to their remote habitat (rugged terrain and harsh climate). Trends towards developing desert areas of of the United States and parts of Mexico are affecting common chuckwalla habitat; however the population status as a whole has been reported as large, and stable.
Commercial sales of the chuckwalla have not shown any major impact on the species as a whole, but some subspecies are locally threatened by excessive collecting and habitat degradation. The South Mountain subpopulation, near Phoenix, Arizona is targeted because they have a unique color pattern that isv desirable for pet trade. The Colorado River dam has greatly reduced common chuckwalla populations in the Glen Canyon area of Utah, and grazing activities of goats, sheep, and burros have shown a small negative impact. Overall, the IUCN categorizes common chuckwallas as “Least Concern” due to large population distribution and no immediate threats. Although total population size is not known, the estimated total adult population size could be 100,000 or greater. (Hollingsworth, 1998)
Tanya Schultz (author), Radford University, Karen Powers (editor), Radford University, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
- desert or dunes
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
an animal that mainly eats leaves.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
- indeterminate growth
Animals with indeterminate growth continue to grow throughout their lives.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
- pet trade
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
- scent marks
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
uses sight to communicate
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