Red-necked pademelons ( (Nowak, 1995)) are only found in parts of eastern Australia. They range from eastern Queensland to just below mid-coast of New South Wales.
The habitat of red-necked pademelons consists of rainforests, thick scrub or grassland areas, and eucalyptus forests. (Wahungu, et al., 2001)
Red-necked pademelons have a head and body length of 290 to 630 mm, with a tail length of 270 to 510 mm. They exibit sexual dimorphism in size, with the males weighing approximately 7 kg compared to the average female weight of 3.8 kg. ("Thylogale thetis (Red-necked pademelon)", 2002; Nowak, 1995)
Red-necked pademelons are grizzled gray in color above with a light hip stripe often present. The short tail of these animals is only lightly furred. It is also thick and rounded. (Nowak, 1995)
Little is known about mating systems in pademelons. Males in captivity tend to be somewhat aggressive toward one another. Taken with the pronounced sexual dimorphism in this species, this is suggestive of polygyny. Polygyny is common in macropods. (Nowak, 1995)
It has been recorded that female red-necked pademelons when in oestrus will be found around larger males, suggesting active mate choice by females. (Ord, et al., 1999)
Red-necked pademelons reach sexual maturity at about 18 months of age. Reproduction occurs in the autumn and spring in the north, and during the summer in the south. These pademelons usually give birth to a single young, although twins have been recorded in the genus. (Nowak, 1995)
Embryonic diapause is known to occur in red-necked pademelons. Embryonic diapause is when the division of the cells in the embryo stops when there are about 100 cells. This "started" but unfinished embryo is held in the uterus until conditions are right for development to continue. This allows for an embryo to be in the uterus while a mother is weaning another joey in the pouch. Once the nursing joey is weaned, development of the embryo can continue. The embryo experiences a short "actual" gestation period of approximately 30 days, but can stay in the pouch for up to 6 1/2 months. (Nowak, 1995)
In all marsupials, the young are altricial, and must make their way from the birth canal into a pouch, where they receive milk from the mother and complete their development. (Nowak, 1995; Nowak, 1995)
In another member of the genus, T. billardierii, a joey stays in the pouch for 202 days, and weaning occurs about 4 months after the young permanently leave the pouch. Sexual maturity is slightly earlier in T. billardierii than in , and it is possible that these other developmental events occur slightly later in the latter species as well. (Nowak, 1995)
Parental care in this species has not been detailed in the literature. However, like other macropods, it is likely that the bulk of parental care is performed by the mother. Mothers nurse their joeys in a pouch, providing them with protection and grooming, until the young have developed enough to leave the pouch. Leaving the pouch permanently is a slow process, and during that time, the mother continues to nurse, groom, and protect her offspring. It is likey that (Nowak, 1995)is like other macropods in this respect.
I found no documented information on this topic.
Red-necked pademelons are solitary animals, sometimes forming small groups. They will sleep during most of the day in leaf litter and may bask in the sun when cold. (Nowak, 1995)
Red-necked pademelons rely on saltatorial locomotion for movement. They have an increased muscle fiber to tendon area ratio in their ankles. The tendons may be size or function dependent, and the strength of these tendons may limit locomotion. (Bennett, 2000; Nowak, 1995)may also travel on all four legs and drag its tail behind, but, as in other macropods, this type of locomotion is reserved for slower travel.
Red-necked pademelons communicate with one another using different clicks and by thumping their hind feet. As mammals, they also have visual capability, and probably use some visual signals, such as body postures, to communicate. Although not specifically reported for this species, it is likely that there are some scent cues, especially related to reproduction. Tactile communication occurs between mothers and their young, as well as between mates. (Nowak, 1995; "Red-necked Pademelon-Thylogale thetis ", 2000)
Food consists of grass, leaves, roots and bark. Foraging behaviors of red-necked pademelons consist of feeding on forest edge at night. This apparently reduces their risk of falling prey to diurnal predators. A larger group size increases the range of feeding from forest cover. (Wahungu, et al., 2001)
Predators of red-necked pademelons are the introduced fox and the dingo, and possibly even large birds of prey. They decrease predation risk by foraging at night. ("Thylogale thetis (Red-necked pademelon)", 2002)
The major ecosystem role that red-necked pademelons play is that they are food for their predators. Through their foraging habits, they are likely to impact the growth of vegetation. ("Thylogale thetis (Red-necked pademelon)", 2002)
Red-necked pademelons have been important for ecotourism in the areas in which they occur. ("Thylogale thetis (Red-necked pademelon)", 2002)
There is no documented information about red-necked pademelons having a negative effect.
The distribution of red-necked pademelons has decreased in Australia due to clearance of native vegetation for agriculture, dairying, and forestry. Even with this, the species is common in some areas. (Nowak, 1995)
The red-necked pademelon is not currently protected under CITES or IUCN.
Red-necked pademelon mothers may throw the joey out of their pouch during hard times to ensure that their own survival. This is a type of infanticide, but probably has a low cost to the mother because she is probably already pregnant with another offspring in embryonic diapause, just waiting for conditions to improve before proceding in its development. ("Thylogale thetis (Red-necked pademelon)", 2002)
Nancy Shefferly (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Toni Lynn Wainio (author), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Chris Yahnke (editor, instructor), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.
Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
humans benefit economically by promoting tourism that focuses on the appreciation of natural areas or animals. Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals.
At about the time a female gives birth (e.g. in most kangaroo species), she also becomes receptive and mates. Embryos produced at this mating develop only as far as a hollow ball of cells (the blastocyst) and then become quiescent, entering a state of suspended animation or embryonic diapause. The hormonal signal (prolactin) which blocks further development of the blastocyst is produced in response to the sucking stimulus from the young in the pouch. When sucking decreases as the young begins to eat other food and to leave the pouch, or if the young is lost from the pouch, the quiescent blastocyst resumes development, the embryo is born, and the cycle begins again. (Macdonald 1984)
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
union of egg and spermatozoan
an animal that mainly eats leaves.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
having more than one female as a mate at one time
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
specialized for leaping or bounding locomotion; jumps or hops.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
University of Queensland. 2000. "Red-necked Pademelon-Thylogale thetis " (On-line). Mammals of Lamington National Park. Accessed June 23, 2004 at http://lamington.nrsm.uq.edu.au/MainMenu.html.
Hobart & William Smith Colleges and Union College. 2002. "Thylogale thetis (Red-necked pademelon)" (On-line). 2001 QUEENSLAND TERM WILDLIFE FIELD GUIDE. Accessed June 23, 2004 at http://people.hws.edu/mitchell/fguide/show.asp?ID=87.
Bennett, M. 2000. Unifying principles in terrestrial locomotion: Do hopping Australian marsupials fit in?. Physiological-and-Biochemical-Zoology, 73: 726-735.
Nowak, R. 1995. "Pademelons" (On-line). Walker's Mammals of the World Online, V. 5.1. Accessed October 14, 2002 at http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/walkers_mammals_of_the_world/marsupialia/marsupialia.macropodidae.thylogale.html.
Ord, T., C. Evans, D. Cooper. 1999. Nocturnal behaviour of the parma wallaby, Macropus parma (Marsupialia:Macropodoidea). Australian Journal of Zoology, 47: 155-167.
Wahungu, G., C. Catterall, M. Olsen. 2001. Predator avoidance, feeding and habitat use in the red-necked pademelon, *Thylogale thetis*, at rainforest edges. Australian Journal of Zoology, 49: 45-58.