Echiniscodies sigismundi individuals are found in aquatic environments. They have very high species richness, though populations tend to be rather small. Populations are mostly present in the Mediterranean Sea, but also have populations located in the Arctic Ocean, the Caribbean, the North Atlantic Ocean, and the South Pacific Ocean. There are several different subspecies that scientists are debating elevating to the species level which is making it more difficult to find the geographic range of these tardigrades. (Gąsiorek and Kristensen, 2022; Guidetti and ver der Land, 2016; Ocean Biodiversity Information System, 2015)
Echiniscodies sigismundi individuals are typically found in intertidal barnacles and seaweeds. Water bears need to stay close to water, otherwise they will dry out, so they have also been found living on moss or lichen, but those are less common examples. They live close to the surface, typically from 0-10 meters of depth. This tardigrade lives in salty environments with a PSU scale of 30-35 and temperatures ranging from 0-20, however, many have been seen expanding past this typical view. (Dimery, 2019; EOL, 2022; Gąsiorek and Kristensen, 2022; Guidetti and ver der Land, 2016; Hobart and Crisp, 1954; Jo, et al., 2022; Nelson, 2002; Ocean Biodiversity Information System, 2015)
Females will lay 30 eggs on average per ovulation. Once laid, the eggs will take roughly 40 days to hatch. Echiniscodies sigismundi individuals experience ecdysis and incomplete metamorphosis, and can perform this up to 4 times during their lifetime. (Glime, 2017; Glime, 2020; Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2023)
Not much is known about the mating systems of (Rebecchi, et al., 2007)individuals. Some other species of tardigrade have both polyandrous and polygynous mating systems, sometimes even in the same population, but more research needs to be done to see if this is replicated in .
Not much is known about the parental investment of. However, most species of tardigrades do not show any form of parental investment, so it is likely also do not show any.
In most cases, Echiniscodies sigismundi individuals will live around a few months to 2 years. However, when they enter cryptobiosis, individuals can last decades without food or water. (Glime, 2017; Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2023)
The main behavioral pattern E sigismundi individuals has been shown to survive in extreme hot and cold, UV radiation, being frozen, the vacuum of space, and more. E. sigismundi have been recorded to be in this state for over 30 years without needing any additional food or water. The name tardigrade also means "slow walker", first described in 1776. (EOL, 2022; Gąsiorek and Kristensen, 2022; Glime, 2017; Glime, 2020; Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2023; Ocean Biodiversity Information System, 2015)individuals are known for, as well as all other species of tardigrade, is cryptobiosis. This defines when a creature enters a state of inactivity due to environmental stressors. individuals will perform this by curling up into a ball. In this state,
The specific method of communication for (Gąsiorek and Kristensen, 2022)individuals is currently unknown. Female individuals will develop large black eyes that now comprise a single pigment cup cells and one or two microvillous sensory cells.
No predatory defenses are currently known for (Glime, 2017). Some related species have flat proteins that resemble glass known as the Tardigrade Disordered Protein (TDP) which has been used to stop predators, but more research needs to be done to see if this protein exists in . Predators for include nematodes and larger tardigrades.
Because of the patchiness of their populations, there is not enough information to find out a lot about Echiniscoides sigismundi’s role in the ecosystem. They do tend to be predators of a lot of species in their habitat, but that can vary depending on location. There have been a few instances of commensal or parasitic relationships with adult barnacles, but the exact relationship is unknown. (Gąsiorek and Kristensen, 2022; Glime, 2017)
Currently there are no known negative impacts on humans due to.
There are no special conservation measures put in place for.
Killian Garnand (author), Colorado State University, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
the body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America which occurs mostly north of the Arctic circle.
the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean.
body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.
on or near the ocean floor in the deep ocean. Abyssal regions are characterized by complete lack of light, extremely high water pressure, low nutrient availability, and continuous cold (3 degrees C).
reproduction that is not sexual; that is, reproduction that does not include recombining the genotypes of two parents
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
union of egg and spermatozoan
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
the area of shoreline influenced mainly by the tides, between the highest and lowest reaches of the tide. An aquatic habitat.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
an animal that mainly eats fungus
islands that are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass, most typically these are volcanic islands.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
development takes place in an unfertilized egg
An aquatic biome consisting of the open ocean, far from land, does not include sea bottom (benthic zone).
Referring to a mating system in which a female mates with several males during one breeding season (compare polygynous).
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
having more than one female as a mate at one time
structure produced by the calcium carbonate skeletons of coral polyps (Class Anthozoa). Coral reefs are found in warm, shallow oceans with low nutrient availability. They form the basis for rich communities of other invertebrates, plants, fish, and protists. The polyps live only on the reef surface. Because they depend on symbiotic photosynthetic algae, zooxanthellae, they cannot live where light does not penetrate.
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
uses sight to communicate
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