generally resides in the Himalayas between 1800 and 3500 m in elevation and within moist temperate forests containing a mixture of deciduous and coniferous trees. However, has also been described as occupying drier coniferous forests as well as man-made structures. There have been some presumed occurrences of occupying high elevation (3800-4000 M) caves in the Yasin Vally of northern Pakistan but evidence of this may be circumstantial.
Ulmus wallichiana), Asian maple (Acer caesium), Himalayan yew (Taxus wallichiana), and deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara). will inhabit trees with a diameter breast height (DBH) ranging from 41-100 cm, in both alive and dead trees. may be outcompeted for habitat by the larger red giant flying squirrel (Petaurista petaurista albivente) which limits the size and species of trees that occupies. (Koli, 2016; Roberts, 1977; Shafique, et al., 2009; Zahler, 1998)mainly utilizes tree cavities for nesting in a variety of deciduous and coniferous tree species, but especially Himalayan elm (
Pteromyini; long flaps of loose skin run from the hindquarters to the front limbs of this mammal. These skin flaps allow for limited gliding when jumping through the air and have been observed traveling as far as 50 ft.is a flying squirrel and as such exhibits the defining characteristic of the tribe
Newborn squirrels are born with their eyes shut and will not open them until they are about 3 quarters to full size. When born, the young of (Roberts, 1977)stay with their mother in a nest concealed within a tree and are not completely independent from their mother until they are somewhere inbetween 2 and 2 ½ months old. may be weaned from around 2-3 months of age and It takes approximately 6 months for a newborn to reach full size. There is very little information about the reproductive behavior of . It appears that the squirrel produces litters of 3-4 young in the summer months of the year and may produce 2 litters a year. It is unknown what the gestation period of the mother is, but in similar flying squirrel species it is around 25-40 days.
When the young are born in the late summer or early fall the mother and father will both care for the young. The male of the species is seen leaving the nest to find food in the early evening and the female is seen departing the nest shortly after the male returns. It seems that there is some degree of parental investment from the male of the species but it is unknown how long this investment lasts, or how long a mating pair stays together. (Koli, 2016)
There is no information on the lifespan ofin the wild, in captivity it is difficult to keep and has been described as a delicate animal.
However there is evidence that Glaucomys . Within this genus is most closely related to the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) which has a lifespan of less than 7 years in the wild. (Oshida, et al., 2004; Roberts, 1977; Smith, 2007)may be closely related to the new world flying squirrel genus
The Kashmir flying squirrel is an arboreal and nocturnal creature that will spend the daytime hours asleep in some sort of shelter, usually that of a tree cavity. They will emerge from their nesting area shortly after sunset and return shortly after sunrise to feed on various nut and plant species. This mammal rarely leaves the arboreal tree tops as it can glide easily between them, but has been sighted inhabiting man-made structures such as rooftops and will not always actively avoid humans.has not been observed hibernating in the winter months but rather the species will move to a lower elevation habitat.
It is unknown how large E. fimbriatus’s home range is within a habitat, just that they mainly exist within the treetops of the forest and rarely visit the ground. In similar species of flying squirrel the home range varies between 0.9 to 2.7 hectares. The Kashmir flying squirrel, though, seems to be limited to specific areas as it has been seen leaving and returning to the same nest cavity each night.
P. philippensis albivente for territory and food sources. It is unknown how directly responds to this competition but it is likely that P. p. albivente excludes the smaller from it’s fundamental niche. (Koli, 2016; Roberts, 1977; Shafique, et al., 2009; Smith, 2007)appears to nest with a partner during mating periods, but it is not known if they communally nest outside this time period with other members of the species. There does seem to be a degree of competition between and
Unknown, similar species range from 0.9 to 2.7 hectares (Roberts, 1977)
has protruding, hairless ears with a concave outer portion that bends back at the tip. It is unknown what effect this particular ear design has on the squirrel's ability to perceive the environment, perhaps to pick up high frequencies of sound. However, the species’ extremely large eyes for it’s body size is likely directly related to its nocturnal lifestyle and allows it to see in low-light conditions.
It is unknown how Glaucomys volans) may utilize high frequency sound to avoid predators, send alarm signals, and to find mates, it is possible that E. fimbratus may as well. (Murrant, et al., 2013; Roberts, 1977)communicates but in similar species of flying squirrels there has been evidence of ultrasonic vocalizations. Species such as the southern flying squirrel (
Ulmus wallichiana) and Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata).utilizes food sources seasonally and is seen browsing on floral buds in the spring, fruit in the summer, and plant shoots in the winter. These food sources are usually derived from a variety of deciduous and conifer trees within its habitat such as Himalayan elm (
However the squirrel is most frequently seen foraging on seed and nut bearing tree species such as Indian horse chestnut (Aesculus indica), evergreen holly oak (Quercus ilex), silver fir (Abies pindrow), and blue pine (Pinus wallichiana). It is able to chew through the tough shell of food sources such as acorns and extract the nut within. (Roberts, 1977; Shafique, et al., 2006)
Likely predators of Martes flavigula) and Scully's Wood Owl (Strix aluco biddulphi). It is unclear exactly how this predation occurs or how avoids it but it is likely that affinity for treetops and aversion to the forest floor is an adaptation to avoid predation. (Roberts, 1977)are the yellow throated marten (
There is no known negative economic value for humans in this species. However, it is possible that prolonged close proximity to humans could result in the spread of diseases such typhus among human popualtions. (Duma, et al., 1981)
As of 2016 (Koli, 2016)is listed as a species of least concern on IUCN’s red list; however, it is noted that their habitat is very fragmented and declining in quality. Agriculture, logging, human expansion, and predation by humans have decreased this species habitat by 50% in the last 50 years.
Eoglaucomys fimbriatus baberi). May be more closely related to the new world genus of flying squirrels, Glaucomys, than it is to old world flying squirrel species such as Hylopetes; hence the unique genus classification Eoglaucomys.is also known as and has a subspecies known as the Afgan flying squirrel (
Hunter Whitten (author), University of Washington, Laura Prugh (editor), University of Washington, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
parental care is carried out by females
an animal that mainly eats leaves.
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
an animal that mainly eats seeds
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
parental care is carried out by males
makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
places a food item in a special place to be eaten later. Also called "hoarding"
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
Duma, R., D. Sonenshine, F. Bozeman et al, et al. 1981. Epidemic Typhus in the United States Associated With Flying Squirrels. Journal of the American Medical Association, 245: 2277-2353.
Koli, V. 2016. Biology and Conservation Status of Flying Squirrels (Pteromyini, Sciuridae, Rodentia) in India: An Update and Review. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 69: 9-21.
Murrant, M., J. Bowman, C. Garroway, B. Prinzen Brian, H. Mayberry, P. Faure. 2013. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Emitted by Flying Squirrels. PloS One, 8: 8.
Niethammer, J. 1990. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 3. New Jersey: McGraw Hill Publishing Co.
Oshida, T., C. Shafique, S. Barkati, M. Yasuda, N. Hussein, H. Endo, R. Masuda. 2004. Phylogenetic position of the small Kashmir flying squirrel, Hylopetes fimbriatus ( Eoglaucomys fimbriatus), in the subfamily Pteromyinae. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 82: 1336-1342.
Roberts, T. 1977. The mammals of Pakistan. London: Ernest Benn.
Shafique, C., S. Barkati, T. Oshida, M. Ando. 2006. Comparison of diets between two sympatric flying squirrel species in northern Pakistan. Journal of Mammalogy, 87: 784-789.
Shafique, C., S. Barkati, T. Oshida, M. Ando. 2009. Comparison of nest trees of two sympatric flying squirrel species in northern Pakistan. Mammalian Biology Zeitschrift Für Säugetierkunde, 74: 240-244.
Smith, W. 2007. Ecology of Glaucomys sabrinus: Habitat, Demography, and Community Relations. Journal of Mammalogy, 88: 862-881.
Zahler, P. 1998. New distribution, elevation, habitat, and diurnal refuge for the Kashmir flying squirrel Eoglaucomys fimbriatus. Mammalia, 62: 588-591.