In the U.S., the (Claflin, 1963; "The Ontario Freshwater Fishes Life History Database", 2017)is most commonly found in larger river systems such as the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Red Rivers (Claflin, 1963). In Canada, prefer deep pools and calm backwaters of large turbid rivers, as well as shallow muddy areas of clear lakes (Eakins, 2017).
The goldeye was given it's name to due to the large yellow color in the iris of it's eyes. The goldeye's body is dominated by a silver color. The dorsal region of this fish has a blueish tint. The body type of the goldeye is considered to be laterally compressed and covered with large cycloid scales. The mouth is considered small and terminal. There are many teeth located on the upper and lower jaw as well as on the tongue. This species displays sexual dimorphism. Mature males and females display different anal fins. The first few rays of a mature male anal fin become elongated to form a distinct lobe. This lobe is absent in mature females (Chaflin, 1963). Common adult weights are 0.21 kg to 0.77 kg. The maximum weight recorded in Ontario Canada is 0.54 kg. Adults range from 25.9 cm to 40.6 cm in length. The maximum recorded length of a goldeye in Ontario Canada is 42.6 cm (Eakins, 2017). (Claflin, 1963; "The Ontario Freshwater Fishes Life History Database", 2017)
Goldeye add, on average, 50 to 100 grams to their body weight per year until age nine. After age nine, goldeye add an additional 10 grams per year to their total body weight (Donald and Sardella, 2010). Growth rates depend on location. Northern latitudes experience slower growth rates than southern latitudes. The goldeye grows the fastest during its first year. In the northern latitudes, the goldeye may reach 80 mm before the end of it's first summer (Warren and Burr, 2014). During the second year of life, growth rates decreased by 50%. During the third year of life, growth rates decreased from year two by slightly more than 50%. Growth rates from years four to seven remained constant. After age seven, growth rates are minimal (Warren and Burr, 2014). (Donald and Sardella, 2010; Warren and Burr, 2014)
Spawning has never been witnessed in the wild. Due to the nature of the modified anal fin of the male, it is thought that the male will cup his anal fin against a female and both the male and female release their gametes into the male's anal fin cup (Warren and Burr, 2014). (Warren and Burr, 2014)
Spawning occurs each spring (Kennedy and Sprules, 1967) and is thought to correlate with water temperature (Eakins, 2017). Spawning temperatures range from 10 to 13°C. Mature female goldeye spawn once each year. However, there is speculation that only a portion of mature female goldeye spawn each year (Hieb, 1968). Females lay anywhere from less then 6000 to 25,000 eggs. The eggs laid by females are non-adhesive and have an oil droplet making them semi-buoyant. After the eggs are laid, hatching occurs after approximately 2 weeks (Warren and Burr, 2014). (Hieb, 1968; Kennedy and Sprules, 1967; Warren and Burr, 2014)
The goldeye do not provide any post-spawning parental care (Warren and Burr, 2014). (Warren and Burr, 2014)
The lifespan for the ("The Ontario Freshwater Fishes Life History Database", 2017; Warren and Burr, 2014)is 10-14 years for males and 12-17 years for females (Eakins, 2017). The oldest goldeye ever captured was 30 years old (Warren and Burr, 2014).
Goldeye are thought to be nocturnal or crepuscular, coming to the surface in the evenings during the morning or evenings, and at night, to feed (Warren and Burr, 2014). (Warren and Burr, 2014)
No telemetry data exists for the goldeye making the homerange sizes difficult to determine (Warren and Burr, 2014). (Warren and Burr, 2014)
The goldeye has a connection between the inner-ear and the swim bladder. Similar to catfishes, the goldeye use this connection as a sound enhancer. Goldeye have tapida lucida in their eyes that reflect light in a way that suggests a mechanism to be able to see in turbid waters as well as to be able to see during low-light conditions (Warren and Burr, 2014). (Warren and Burr, 2014)
The goldeye is considered an invertivore (Eakins, 2017) and will eat a wide range of food items. These items include animals from the genus Arthropoda, Insecta, Odonata, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, and Chironomidae (Hieb, 1968). (Hieb, 1968; Warren and Burr, 2014)
Goldeye are susceptible to becoming hosts to many parasites such as cestodes, crustaceans, nematodes, treamatodes, and acanthocephalans (Warren and Burr, 2014). (Warren and Burr, 2014)
There are no known adverse effects of goldeye on humans.
The goldeye does not maintain a federal protection status in the United States or Canada. However, they are listed in many U.S. states as threatened or of special concern (Warren and Burr, 2014). Goldeye are listed on redlist as a species of least concern. (Warren and Burr, 2014)
Cameron Brock (author), Minnesota State University Mankato, Robert Sorensen (editor), Minnesota State University, Mankato, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
areas with salty water, usually in coastal marshes and estuaries.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
breeding is confined to a particular season
uses touch to communicate
Robert J. Eakins. 2017. "The Ontario Freshwater Fishes Life History Database" (On-line). Accessed April 05, 2017 at http://www.ontariofishes.ca/home.htm.
Battle, H., W. Sprules. 1960. A description of the semi-buoyant eggs and early developmental stages of the goldeye, (Rafinesque).. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada., 17/2: 245-266.
Claflin, T. 1963. Age and rate of growth of the goldeye, Hiodon Alosoides (Rafinesque), in the Missouri river. South Dakota: University of South Dakota Libraries.
Donald, D., G. Sardella. 2010. Mercury and other metals in muscle and ovaries of Goldeye (Hiodon alosoides). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 29/2: 373-379.
Hieb, R. 1968. Observations on the life history of the goldeye, Hiodon alosoides (rafinesque), in Moccasin Bay on the Little Missouri Arm, Garrison Reservoir, North Dakota. Grand Forks, North Dakota: University of North Dakota.
Kennedy, W., W. Sprules. 1967. Goldeye in Canada. Ottawa Canada: Queen's Printer.
Moon, D., S. Fisher, S. Krentz. 1998. Assessment of larval fish consumption by Goldeye (Hiodon alosoides) in two Missouri river backwaters. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 13/3: 317-321. Accessed February 12, 2017 at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02705060.1998.9663624.
Pankhurst, N. 1985. Final maturation and ovulation of oocytes of the goldeye, Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), in vitro.. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63/5: 1003-1009.
Warren, M., B. Burr. 2014. Freshwater fishes of North America. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.