There is little information available on the physical appearance of Limnephilus that may apply to the species. Like most insects, the body is made up of three segments: the head, thorax, and abdomen. The head contains eyes, ocelli, antennae, and mouthparts (Vshivkova, 2006). Species of Limnephilus are often tan in color, though some species can be dark gray. Additionally, species of this genus are typically 15 to 20 mm in length (Houghton, 2012). A close relative to (L. externus) was used as reference for the average mass of the species, which is 6.08 to 14.4 mg for females and 5.8 to 7.6 mg for males (Wissinger, Brown, and Jannot, 2003). The same close relative was also used to obtain the average wingspan, which is 16.2 to 18.0 mm. Sexual dimorphism is present in this species, with females generally being larger than males. Individuals of also emerge from their eggs as larvae, develop into pupae, and finally metamorphose into adults (Wissinger, Brown, and Jannot, 2003). (Houghton, 2012; Vshivkova, 2006; Wissinger, et al., 2003)specifically, but some descriptions have been written regarding the genus
Individuals of (Wissinger, et al., 2003)emerge as larvae from their eggs in late autumn. However, they remain in a gelatinous matrix which was deposited with the eggs through winter and spring, and resume further development in the summer (Wissinger, Brown, and Jannot, 2003). Larvae of go through 4 or 5 larval stages before they pupate in late summer. They are in the pupal stage for only a brief period before they undergo metamorphosis, become adults and emerge from the water in early autumn. Adults of mate soon after emergence, and the females move into the surrounding terrestrial vegetation until later in the season. During this time, females undergo ovarian diapause, in which their fertilized eggs don't develop and are not deposited. Finally, in mid- to late autumn, females deposit their eggs in gelatinous egg masses under rocks and logs near the water's edge (Wissinger, Brown, and Jannot, 2003).
The mating systems ofappears to be unknown at this time.
Adults of (Wissinger, et al., 2003)do not provide parental care to their offspring (Wissinger, Brown, and Jannot, 2003).
This species is solitary, with its individuals remaining in the same general area for the entirety of its life. Adults are nocturnal, and are most active in the evenings (Houghton, 2012). Interestingly, (Bird, et al., 2019; Houghton, 2012)is among the case-building caddisfly species. During development, larvae are able to make cases composed of silk and a combination of organic and mineral material for protection. Larvae also make a case when preparing to pupate (Houghton, 2012). Additionally, has been known to be territorial and even cannibalistic during its larval stages when water levels get too low (Bird et al., 2019).
Individuals of (Houghton, 2012)generally do not disperse farther than 100 m from their natal stream or pond (Houghton, 2012). There is no information regarding whether individuals of hold territories.
This species is important to aquatic environments as secondary producers. Individuals ofbreaks down plant matter and also acts as a food source for insectivorous fish and other animals (Houghton, 2012). There is no information regarding parasitism in this species.
Relatively little is known about the economic importance of (Houghton, 2012). However, with further research, the species holds high potential value as a water quality biomonitoring species due to its susceptibility to pollution and habitat destruction (Houghton, 2012).
There are no known negative effects of this species on humans.
Little is known about the conservation status of L. atlanticus) as "near threatened." The State of Michigan List gave another close relative (L. pallens) a state status of "special concern," which means the species is either rare or of uncertain abundance. For the U.S. status, however, the species is not listed.. The IUCN Red List ranked a close relative (
Danielle Chaffee (author), Minnesota State University Mankato, Robert Sorensen (editor), Minnesota State University, Mankato, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
helps break down and decompose dead plants and/or animals
areas with salty water, usually in coastal marshes and estuaries.
an animal that mainly eats meat
an animal that mainly eats decomposed plants and/or animals
particles of organic material from dead and decomposing organisms. Detritus is the result of the activity of decomposers (organisms that decompose organic material).
a period of time when growth or development is suspended in insects and other invertebrates, it can usually only be ended the appropriate environmental stimulus.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
an animal that mainly eats leaves.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
a distribution that more or less circles the Arctic, so occurring in both the Nearctic and Palearctic biogeographic regions.
Found in northern North America and northern Europe or Asia.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
remains in the same area
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
uses sight to communicate
Bird, M., M. Mlambo, R. Wasserman, T. Dalu, A. Holland, J. Day, M. Villet, D. Bilton, H. Barber-James, L. Brendonck. 2019. Deeper knowledge of shallow waters: reviewing the invertebrate fauna of southern African temporary wetlands. Hydrobiologia, 827/1: 89-121.
Houghton, D. 2012. Biological diversity of the Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera). Zookeys, 189: 1-389.
Vshivkova, T. 2006. Phylogeny of family Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) with emphasis on tribe Limnephilini (subfamily Limnephilinae). All Dissertations, 44: 1-576.
Wissinger, S., W. Brown, J. Jannot. 2003. Caddisfly life histories along permanence gradients in high-altitude wetlands in Colorado (U.S.A.). Freshwater Biology, 48/2: 255-270.